Lecture 16 Spring 2010 - Announcements Assignment#4 parts a...

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Announcements Assignment #4 parts a and b has been released will be due March 4 Next exam, exam 2, the Wed. after spring break Next exam will cover Chapter 5 from 5.6 on, Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 up to section 7.4
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Chapter 6, Thermochemistry and Section 9.10 6.1 The Nature of Energy and Its Transformations 6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 6.3 Quantifying Heat and Work 6.4 Measure E for Chemical Reactions: Constant Volume Calorimetry 6.5 Enthalpy: The Heat Evolved in a Chemical Reaction at Constant Pressure 6.6 Constant Pressure Calorimetry: Measuring H rxn 6.7 Relationships Involving H rxn 6.8 Enthalpies of Reaction from Standard Heats of Formation
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Bond Dissociation Energies
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Example of Bond Dissociation Energies Calculate an approximate H ° (in kilojoules) using average bond energies for the combustion of ethanol.
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Important Equations PV = nRT KE =3/2RT Urms=(3RT/M) 1/2 Density = mass/volume E = q + w = q - P V q = H = E – w q = nC T C = J/mol ° C molar heat capacity q = mC T C = J/g ° C specific heat Specific heat = (1/MW) molar heat capacity H rxn = Σ n H f (products) - Σ n H f (reactants) H molar = H/n H rxn = Σ D (reactants) bonds broken - Σ D(products) bonds formed
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Lecture 7 7.1 Quantum Mechanics 7.2 The Nature of Light 7.3 Atomic Spectroscopy 7.4 The Wave Nature of Matter: The de Broglie Wavelength, the Uncertainty Principle and Indeterminancy 7.5 Quantum Mechanics of the Atom 7.6 The Shapes of Atomic Orbitals
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 9 The Behavior of the Very Small electrons are incredibly small a single speck of dust has more electrons than the number of people who have ever lived on earth electron behavior determines much of the behavior of atoms directly observing electrons in the atom is impossible, the electron is so small that observing it changes its behavior
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 10 A Theory that Explains Electron Behavior the quantum-mechanical model explains the manner electrons exist and behave in atoms helps us understand and predict the properties of atoms that are directly related to the behavior of the electrons why some elements are metals while others are nonmetals why some elements gain 1 electron when forming an anion, while others gain 2 why some elements are very reactive while others are practically inert and other Periodic patterns we see in the properties of the elements
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 11 The Nature of Light: its Wave Nature light is a form of electromagnetic radiation composed of perpendicular oscillating waves, one for the electric field and one for the magnetic field all electromagnetic waves move through space at the same, constant speed 3.00 x 10 8 m/s in a vacuum = the speed of light, c
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 12 Speed of Energy Transmission
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Characteristics of Light Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength (Greek lambda, λ ) distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves Expressed in units of length: nanometers (nm) 6
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