EDP Exam 2- Chapters 5-8 Chapter 5- Gender Gender vs. Sex ❖ Sex: the biological status of being male or female ❖ Gender: the social categories of male and female, established according to cultural beliefs and practices rather than being the result of biology- including non-binary gender identity ❖ Gender socialization: the process through which cultures communicate gender expectations to children and adolescents In traditional cultures… Girls: - More tightly watched, expected to stay at home and help mother, less education, less time with peers Boys: - Encouraged to explore, more time with peers, more education - Manhood is something that has to be achieved 3 primary male roles: 1. Provider: the requirement of being able to provide economically for one’s self as well as wife and children 2. Protect: the requirement of being able to assist in protecting one’s family and community from human and animal attackers 3. Procreate: the requirement of being able to function sexually well enough to produce children Types of manhood: 1. Communal manhood: Anthony Rotundo’s term for the norm of manhood in 17th and 18th century colonial America, in which the focus of gender expectations for adolescent boys was on preparing to assume adult male role responsibilities in work and marriage
2. Self-made manhood: Anthony rotundo’s term for the norm of manhood in 19th century America, in which males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families in adolescence and emerging adulthood as part of becoming a man 3. Passionate manhood: term for the norm of manhood in the 20th-century US, in which self-expression and self-enjoyment replaced self-control and self-denial as the paramount virtues young males should learn in the course of becoming a man The Gender intensification hypothesis - The hypothesis that psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced at adolescence because of intensified socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed gender roles Differential gender socialization: - The term for socializing males and females according to different expectations about what attitudes and behavior are appropriate to each gender - Implicit bias: differences between boys and girls abilities and behaviors Socialization and Gender in the west - Girls: focus on the external image- appearance - Boys: being a “man” - aggressiveness Cognition and Gender: - The cognitive-developmental theory of gender: Kohlberg’s theory, based on Piaget’s ideas about cognitive development, asserting that gender is a fundamental way of organizing ideas about the world and that children develop through a predictable series of stages in their understanding of gender - Gender identity: Children’s understanding of themselves as being either male or female reached about age 3
- Self- socialization: in gender socialization, the way that children seek to maintain consistency between the norms they have learned about gender and their behavior - Gender schema theory:
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