Chapter_4_summary - Chapter 4 Socialization What is...

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Chapter 4 Socialization
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What is socialization? Socialization is a learning process that involves development or changes in the individual’s sense of self Primary socialization is the socialization that occurs during childhood Secondary socialization is the socialization that occurs later in life
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Determinism vs Free Will Determinism refers to the degree to which a person’s behaviour, attitudes, and other personal characteristics are determined or caused by a specific factor Are we free to be who we want to be or are there forces that determine who we are?
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Biological Determinism Biological Determinism : the greater part of who we are is determined by our roughly 26,000 genes For example, if we are good at sports or math it is because we are somehow genetically predisposed to be so?
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Social or Cultural Determinism Behaviourism is a school of thought in psychology that takes a strong cultural determinist position Behaviourists believe that any behaviour can be taught and learned Much of who we are, behaviourists would argue, is a consequence of how previous behaviour was reinforced Thorndike calls this the Law of Effect
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Sigmund Freud: Balancing the Biological and the Socio-Cultural Freud believed that the mind had three parts: Id: represents our unconscious instinctive drives: Eros (life) Thanatos (death) Superego: represents our conscience It develops from the moral messages that our socializing agents present to us
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Ego: mediates between the conscious and the unconscious while trying to make sense of what the individual self does and thinks
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Agency Agency is the capacity to influence what happens in one’s life Canadian sociologist Dennis Wrong argued that individuals have the capacity to resist the messages that our socializing agents give us
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Chapter_4_summary - Chapter 4 Socialization What is...

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