04-PlantFoods

04-PlantFoods - 1 Seeds as Foods • Plant’s embryonic...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Seeds as Foods • Plant’s embryonic material with food • 10,000 years ago, the beginning of Agriculture • The main component of seeds is starch which supplies the average person 60% of their daily calories. • Grains & legumes account for more than 2/3 of dietary protein in the average diet Seeds • Grains –cereals are all plants from the grass family. They produce many tiny dry fruits (grains). • Legumes are plants that bear several seeds in a pod. Can be eaten as a vegetable before drying • Nuts comprise a category that includes the seeds of fleshly or one seeded fruits Grains • Over 8,000 species in the grass family • Cereals- wheat, barley, rice, millet, sorghum, rye & oats • Production levels: wheat > corn = rice Wheat • Wheat used for human consumption & some Wheat used for human consumption & some extent for livestock feed and seed extent for livestock feed and seed • No. 1 food grain grown in U.S. & world No. 1 food grain grown in U.S. & world • Developed from a type of wild grass of Asia Developed from a type of wild grass of Asia Minor Minor • Cultivation originated in 10,000 B.C. making Cultivation originated in 10,000 B.C. making it the oldest cereal crops it the oldest cereal crops 2 "Whole grains consist of the starchy endosperm, germ and bran.” The milling process involves several rounds of grinding and sifting off coarse particles Tempered wheat Crushed wheat (flour) Milling (Grinding) Wheat to Make Flour Carbohydrates - Starch ! Amylase: enzyme(s) used to breakdown starch Carbohydrates - Starch ! Amylase: enzyme(s) used to breakdown starch to glucose and maltose ! This is especially important to brewers ! We will talk to you more about the malting processes in brewing where starch in barley is broken down to maltose and glucose in order for yeast to ferment starch into alcohol 3 Bread • Flat breads can be made from flour and water leavened by steam (wheat, corn, barley) • Raised bread first made in Middle East 6,000 years ago • Wheat is special in its ability to make raised bread (This has to do with its proteins) Egypt 1200 BC Thomas Jefferson 4 Parts of a Corn Kernel Endosperm is about 82% of the kernel's dry weight and is the source of energy and protein (starch) for the germinating seed. Hull (bran) is the outer covering of the kernel that protects it from deterioration Germ is the only living part of the corn kernel. It contains the essential genetic information, enzymes, vitamins and minerals for the kernel to grow into a corn plant. About 25% of the germ is corn oil Corn is separated into its components -- starch, oil, protein and fiber -- and converted into higher value products: Corn sweeteners are the most important refined corn products. Last year, corn sweeteners supplied more than 56 percent of the U.S. nutritive sweetener market....
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2010 for the course FST FST 10 taught by Professor Shoemaker during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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04-PlantFoods - 1 Seeds as Foods • Plant’s embryonic...

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