Study GuideChapter One:●Geography is the science that studies the relationships among natural systems,geographic area, society, cultural activities, and the interdependence of all these overspace.●There are two disciplines: Human Geography and Physical Geography. HumanGeography relates to culture and society while physical relates to climate and animals.●Geographers use fieldwork for research for linkage among places and complexities ofissues.●Science means to know. It involves producing knowledge and observations,●The Scientific Method includes Hypothesis, Method, Evidence, and Falsification.●There are the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.●Geodesy: it is the science that tries to quantify the earth’s size and shape.●The Earth is a Geoid meaning that it is not perfectly spherical.●Geography is a spatial science which deals with location.●How do you find a location on the Earth’s surface?○The coordinated grid system and with latitude & longitude.●Latitude: The angular distance north-south of the Equator, measured from the center ofEarth.●Latitude is important for climate○High Latitude: 66.5 to 90 degrees (polar regions)○Middle Latitude: 66.5 to 23.5 degrees○Low Latitude: 0 to 23.5 degrees (tropics)●Latitude divides the earth into northern and southern hemispheres○0 degree = Equator○23.5 degree N = Tropic of Cancer○23.5 degrees S Tropic of Capricorn○66.5 degrees N = Arctic Circle○66.5 degrees S = Antarctic Circle●Longitude measures east to west of a point on the earth’s surface measured from thePrime Meridian (0 degrees) and runs through Greenwich, England.●A Great Circle is any circle of circumference whose center coincides with the center ofthe earth.●A Map is two dimensional, generalized, and a tool to depict spatial information.●Cartography: The study of the design and production of maps●Globe: The most visually complete and accurate way to represent the Earth.●Isolines are lines connecting points of equal value on a map.●Map Projections: They are a representation of the 3-dimensional Earth on a2-dimensional surface○Two Types:■Conformal- Shape■Equivalent- Size●The Mercator Projection is a conformal projection with correct shapes for landmasses.
●Equivalent Projection has its size consistent but the shape is distorted.●Map Scale: The distance ratio between features on a map and features in the real world○Large scale: small area, fine detail○Small scale: large area, little detail●Remote Sensing: Satellites or aircraft to capture information about the Earth’s surface.●GIS: G = Geographical/ Geospatial I = Information S= Systems: the technology,Science: the concepts and theory, Studies: the societal context●Map + database behind it.○Queried: Support ongoing operations○Decision making: Summarized to support this○Analyzed: Support scientific inquiryChapter Two:●The temperature of our sun is 11,000 degrees F●Revolution: Earth’s orbit around the Sun. It takes 365.25 days to make a full rotation.●Axis: The Earth rotates on this. It is 24 hours or day/night.