Physical Geography Chapter Study Guide.pdf - Study Guide...

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Study GuideChapter One:Geography is the science that studies the relationships among natural systems,geographic area, society, cultural activities, and the interdependence of all these overspace.There are two disciplines: Human Geography and Physical Geography. HumanGeography relates to culture and society while physical relates to climate and animals.Geographers use fieldwork for research for linkage among places and complexities ofissues.Science means to know. It involves producing knowledge and observations,The Scientific Method includes Hypothesis, Method, Evidence, and Falsification.There are the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.Geodesy: it is the science that tries to quantify the earth’s size and shape.The Earth is a Geoid meaning that it is not perfectly spherical.Geography is a spatial science which deals with location.How do you find a location on the Earth’s surface?The coordinated grid system and with latitude & longitude.Latitude: The angular distance north-south of the Equator, measured from the center ofEarth.Latitude is important for climateHigh Latitude: 66.5 to 90 degrees (polar regions)Middle Latitude: 66.5 to 23.5 degreesLow Latitude: 0 to 23.5 degrees (tropics)Latitude divides the earth into northern and southern hemispheres0 degree = Equator23.5 degree N = Tropic of Cancer23.5 degrees S Tropic of Capricorn66.5 degrees N = Arctic Circle66.5 degrees S = Antarctic CircleLongitude measures east to west of a point on the earth’s surface measured from thePrime Meridian (0 degrees) and runs through Greenwich, England.A Great Circle is any circle of circumference whose center coincides with the center ofthe earth.A Map is two dimensional, generalized, and a tool to depict spatial information.Cartography: The study of the design and production of mapsGlobe: The most visually complete and accurate way to represent the Earth.Isolines are lines connecting points of equal value on a map.Map Projections: They are a representation of the 3-dimensional Earth on a2-dimensional surfaceTwo Types:Conformal- ShapeEquivalent- SizeThe Mercator Projection is a conformal projection with correct shapes for landmasses.
Equivalent Projection has its size consistent but the shape is distorted.Map Scale: The distance ratio between features on a map and features in the real worldLarge scale: small area, fine detailSmall scale: large area, little detailRemote Sensing: Satellites or aircraft to capture information about the Earth’s surface.GIS: G = Geographical/ Geospatial I = Information S= Systems: the technology,Science: the concepts and theory, Studies: the societal contextMap + database behind it.Queried: Support ongoing operationsDecision making: Summarized to support thisAnalyzed: Support scientific inquiryChapter Two:The temperature of our sun is 11,000 degrees FRevolution: Earth’s orbit around the Sun. It takes 365.25 days to make a full rotation.Axis: The Earth rotates on this. It is 24 hours or day/night.

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