Ch-12 - CHAPTER 12 Other Emerging Issues Introduction Many...

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C HAPTER 12 Other Emerging Issues Introduction Many issues are emerging as major challenges for quite some time. We will discuss here only three of them: Environment, Gender and Migration. Environment Development was, for long, associated with under-exploitation of natural resources. It was little realised that obsession with under-exploitation may lead to over-exploitation. We believe that natural resources are indefinitely large, if not infinite. At the same time, we are finding that our present technology produces harmful elements along with useful products (such as electricity or transportation). We are also producing many non-degradable materials. In short, we are said to be using nature beyond its carrying capacity, both productive and assimilative. Blame is apportioned to rising human population (in underdeveloped countries), affluent consumption style (in developed countries), and misuse of technology (everywhere). Some put the blame on the poor people, not on their poverty, for some of the environmental problems such as deforestation. Even the development framework proposed by the governments are also blamed. We can categorise our environmental issues into two broad groups. The first relates to pollution issues, which largely concern urban and industrial areas, and are connected with air, water and solid waste. The second relates to degradation of resources issues, which largely concern agriculture, forestry, livestock and bio- diversity. We shall consider them below. Pollution Issues Pollutants are substances foreign to the medium in which they are present. They do not get sufficiently dissolved and cause problems to the animal world. These are classified as air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, etc. Air Pollution India now has 35 cities which have population in excess of one million. Ambient air pollution levels exceed WHO health standards in many of these. Increasing power consumption, increasing industrialisation, increasing vehicular traffic, along with burning of refuse, are worsening air quality of these cities. Ahmedabad, Delhi, Kanpur, Kolkata, Mumbai and Nagpur are worst affected by pollution. Excessive presence of certain gases and suspended material particulates
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158 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (SPM) pollute air. As air is the carrier of oxygen for human beings and other animals, they suffer from various ailments causing disability which affects work and leisure. Gases like CO, CO 2 , NO 2 , SO 2 , and ozone, and suspended particulates, including lead particulates are major pollutants causing diseases which often results in early death. These diseases include respiratory, cardio- vascular, hyper-tension, asthma, eye irritation, and neurological problems. Diseases cause morbidity leading to loss of work to the individuals and loss of output to the society and cost of treatment to the individuals/society.
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2010 for the course CEDT 601 taught by Professor Ypr during the Spring '00 term at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.

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Ch-12 - CHAPTER 12 Other Emerging Issues Introduction Many...

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