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L2_ExistentialLexicon - PHI 310 Lecture 2 The Existential...

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PHI 310 Lecture 2. The Existential Lexicon [Most of the definitions are taken from the New Dictionary of Existentialism (NDE)] absurd - (from NDE ) (Latin absurdus : unheard of) The absurd is viewed either (as with Kierkegaard) as the positive basis for the acceptance of authentic reality, or (as with Sartre) as the negative basis for the rejection of a religious view of the world. God's passion is to be found in the absurd; where this sign is to be seen, there God is present… — Kierkegaard, The Last Years Combinations of logically compatible words become absurd when they contradict the meaningful order of reality. — Paul Tillich, Systemic Theology, II Karl Jaspers rejects the absurd as defined and celebrated by Kierkegaard. Such absurdity is an indication of the bankruptcy of modern Christianity, Protestant and Catholic. Albert Camus began with the declaration that the world was absurd and meaningless. Refusing to be defeated by such a reality, he celebrated the joy of what he called “the invincible summer” within. ( NDE ) absurdism - The belief nothing can explain or rationalize human existence. There is no answer to “Why am I?” Human beings exist in a meaningless, irrational universe and that any search for order by them will bring them into direct conflict with this universe. alienation - A state of divided selfhood in which one is distanced from one’s true being and confronts the self as an alien being. anguish - (from NDE ) (Latin angere to tighten, choke) One of the key terms in existential philosophy, anguish (or dread) reveals the character of human life and illuminates the nature of the world. In Kierkegaard’s conception, dread (Angest) is not fear, caused by some external threat. Rather, dread is an inward passion, either a continuous melancholy or a sudden and terrifying emotion. Sartre treats anguish (angoises) as the reflective apprehension of the Self as freedom. Anguish is the realization that nothingness slips in between my Self and my past and future so that nothing relieves me from the necessity of continually choosing myself and nothing guarantees the validity of the values which I choose. Jaspers, differing from Sartre, defines anguish (Angst) as “the dizziness and shudder of freedom confronting the necessity of making a choice.” As he develops his thought, anguish is experienced in those ultimate situations, such as before death, in which Existenz faces its most extreme limits. As one of Dasein’s possibilities of Being, anxiety — together with Dasein itself as disclosed in it — provides the phenomenal basis for explicitly grasping Dasein’s primordial totality of Being. — Heidegger, Being and Time The normal, existential anxiety of guilt drives the person toward attempts to avoid this anxiety (usually called the uneasy conscience) by avoiding
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guilt. … The moralistic self-defense of the neurotic makes him see guilt where there is no guilt or where one is guilty in a very indirect way. — Tillich, The Courage to Be amoral
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L2_ExistentialLexicon - PHI 310 Lecture 2 The Existential...

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