WEEK 11 + 12_The Imperial Capital of Rome_1

WEEK 11 + 12_The Imperial Capital of Rome_1 - WEEK 11 (and...

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WEEK 11 (and part of 12): The Capital city of Rome under the emperors Augustan and Julio-Claudian Rome Flavian Rome “The Five Good Emperors”
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Pompey Theater Complex (c. Pompey Theater Complex (c. 55 BCE): Restored Plan 55 BCE): Restored Plan
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Model of main theater  and porticus of Theater  of Pompey (55 BCE)
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Curia Julia Forum of Caesar
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Restored Plan of Forum of Caesar (begun  in 54 BCE by Julius Caesar, completed 29  BCE by Augustus) Plan of Temple of Venus Genetrix  (Forum of Caesar)
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Augustan Rome (31 BC – AD 14): Key concepts Change from Republic to Empire Changing face of the city to respond to new political organization Visual and ideological Propaganda The Roman author Suetonius reports Augustus having said that “he found Rome as a city of brick, and left it a city of marble.” What does this mean? What goes into the making of a city that is the capital of a massive empire? How should it look?
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Octavian/Augustus 44 BCE: Death of Julius Caesar, Octavian 19 years old 42 BCE: Battle of Phillipi Octavian vowed to build the temple of Mars Ultor (Mars the Avenger – i.e. of the murder of Caesar) By 31 BCE, after battle at Actium against Marc Antony and Cleopatra he had sole rule of the Roman world Ended long period of civil war – ushers in peace 27 BCE: The senate awarded Octavian with the title Augustus 9 BCE: Dedication of Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace) 2 BCE: Dedication of the temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus He promotes idea of divinely sanctioned rule Iconographic and architectural Language of emperor and empire
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Messages of empire: Augustus Need to show change Away from civil discord and strife Images of Peace and prosperity Fecundity and fertility Religious Piety Fixes old temples Builds new temples Augustus as author of all new building and prosperity in the city of Rome Imperator and Princeps First among equals in Rome
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Mausoleum of Augustus Horologium / Sun Dial Ara Pacis Forum of Divine Julius House of Augustus
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Temple of the Divus Iulius (the divine Julius Caesar)
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Temple of the Divus Iulius (the divine Julius)
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Horologium (sun dial) of Augustus: Visual Reminder of Egyptian victory
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Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace): 9 BC dedication
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Ara Pacis Aeneas Romulus and Remus Goddess Roma Altar Senators and imperial family Augustus, senators and imperial family
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Ara Pacis: Entranceway Aeneas sacrificing Romulus and remus: Lupercal
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Ara Pacis: Procession
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Ara Pacis: Procession Leading men of the state Relationship between princeps and senate Princeps and religious leaders
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Ara Pacis: Fertility and fecundity
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Ara Pacis: Tellus Frieze
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Ara Pacis: Children = Fertility = Prosperity Imperial successors? Considerations of heir
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The Ara Pacis now
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Mausoleum of Augustus
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Models for structure? Visual propaganda sending what message?
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Forum of Augustus
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Forum of Augustus: 2 BC Temple of Mars Ultor (the avenger)
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Forum of Augustus: Temple of Mars Ultor (the avenger)
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Temple of Mars Ultor: Pediment Compare to iconography in temple of venus genetrix Julius Caesar in pediment with deities
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Forum of Augustus: Porticoes and hemicycles Centum summi viri (100 Greatest men)
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WEEK 11 + 12_The Imperial Capital of Rome_1 - WEEK 11 (and...

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