Andre Mallqui Period 4 2005 AP Biology Free-Response Questions: 4. An important defense against diseases in vertebrate animals is the ability to eliminate, inactivate, or destroy foreign substances and organisms. Explain how the immune system achieves three of the following: • Provides an immediate nonspecific response • Activates T and B cells in response to an infection • Responds to a later exposure to the same infectious agent • Distinguishes self from nonself Vertebrate animals have the ability to eliminate, inactive and destroy foreign substances and organisms through the use of their bodily defenses. The immune system activates T and B cells in response to an infection, in various methods. Antigen presenting cell binds helper T cells to activate and/or stimulate helper T cells. They may also activate and/or stimulate cytotoxic T cells. Antigen binding to B cells activates B cells. Another method is through the use of Interleukin. The interleukin 1 from macrophages activates helper T cells. The interleukin 2 from helper T cells activate
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