owners of factories and other means of production
characteristic of political economies based off of communist ideology in which the ownership of private property and the market mechanism were
replaced with the allocation of resources by the state bureaucracy.
an interpretation of history and vision for the future written by the father of communism, Karl Marx. Marx envisioned a new world after the
revolution, one in which social class would disappear because ownership of private property would be banned. According to Marx, communism encourages equality
and cooperation, and without property to encourage greed and strife, governments would be unnecessary, and they would wither away.
allocation of power throughout various political, social, and economic institutions.
rule by a few for the benefit of the many
shares Marx’s vision of equality and cooperation, but Mao believed very strongly
in preserving China’s peasant-based society. Although the government sometimes emphasized industrialization during Mao’s long rule, Mao was more interested in
promoting a revolutionary fervor that strengthened agriculturally-based communities.
instituted by Deng Xiaoping after Mao’s death in 1976, allows for a significant infusion of capitalism into the system.
which predicted the demise of the capitalist west. This belief fed into Russian nationalism and supported the notion that the Russian government and way of
life would eventually prevail. The ideals of the revolutionary era of the early 20th century envisioned a world transformed by egalitarianism and the elimination of
provided the legitimacy base for the party, with its ideology of democratic centralism
the process of filling influential jobs in the state, society, or the economy with people approved and chosen by the communist party. The
includes not only political jobs, but almost all top positions in other areas as well, such as university presidents, newspaper editors, and military officers. Party approval
translates as party membership, so the easiest way for an individual to get ahead is to join the party.
revolution of the proletariat
occurred in 1917, but did not follow the steps outlined by Karl Marx. Marx believed that the revolution would first take place in
industrialized, capitalist countries. Early 20th century Russia had only begun to industrialize in the late 19th century, and was far behind countries like Britain,
Germany, and the United States. However, revolutionary Vladimir Lenin believed that the dictatorial tsar should be overthrown, and that Russian peasants should be
released from oppression
the ability for individuals to change their social status over the
course of their lifetimes.
“vanguard of the revolution”