AMH 2020 Notes_.pdf - Almeida 1 AMH 2020 Notes Chapter 1...

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Almeida 1 AMH 2020 Notes: Chapter 1: The American Journey in 1900 Key Topics: -The technological and organizational innovations behind the emergence of large corporations and a new work force, and the response of government. -The impact of the new immigration. -The hardening of race relations and African-American migration. -New patterns of residence, consumption, and recreation in the industrial city. -The subjugation of Native Americans in the West. -Ideological assumptions of an emerging world power. Introduction -Mary Antin was a 13 year old Jew fleeing from tsarist Russia. Was afraid of prosecution, fled to the United States. On her journey she was scared to be caught and killed, was relieved when arriving in the accepting United States. -America proved to her to be The Promised Land. -Attended college at Barnard College NYC, wrote on immigrant issues, lectured widely and worked for Theodore Roosevelt’s Progressive party. Fought against immigration restriction legislation and promoted public education as the main channel of upward mobility for immigrants. Then became a respected writer in the United States. -Rapid industrial development as well as an upsurge of immigration in the United States changed the nature of the country and the shape of its cities. -Large factories staffed by semiskilled workers overpowered the skilled artisans and small shops that had dominated American Industry in the nineteenth century. -Industrial development also accelerated urbanization. Cities were nothing new on the American landscape, but this was an age of great cities. The proportion of the nations population living in cities rose from 20% to 40%. New Industry -The United States transformed from an agricultural nation - a nation of farmers, merchants, and artisans - to the world’s foremost industrial power, producing more than one third of the worlds manufactured goods. Factory workers made up 25% of the workforce by the early twentieth century.
Almeida 2 Inventing Technology: The Electric Age -Electricity freed manufacturers from dependency on water power. -Factories no longer had to be located by rivers. They could be located anywhere with access to a workforce and transportation. Machines were now able to replace some workers to the control of factories leaned even more towards the employers not the employees. -American engineers went to Europe for training and Europeans benefited the textiles, railroads etc of America. -Manufacturing was simplified so that low-skilled workers could be hired. Artisans and small specialized shops became obsolete. Machines were much quicker and much more efficient. -The modernization of industry that made the United States the world’s foremost industrial nation after 1900 reflected organizational as well as technological innovation.

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