ISA - Outline ISA Introduction ISA Classifying Memory...

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April 21, 2010 Outline ISA Introduction ISA Classifying Memory Addressing Addressing Modes Operands Encoding ISA
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April 21, 2010 Instruction Set Architecture Instruction set architecture is the structure of a computer that a machine language programmer must understand to write a correct program for that machine. The instruction set architecture is also the machine description that a hardware designer must understand to design a correct implementation of the computer.
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April 21, 2010 Instruction Set Architecture The instruction set architecture serves as the interface between software and hardware Sometimes known as The Programmer’s Model of the machine instruction set software hardware
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April 21, 2010 What Are the Components of an ISA? The instruction format Size and meaning of fields within the instruction The nature of the fetch-execute cycle Things that are done before the operation code is known
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April 21, 2010 Basic Issues in Instruction Set Design --- What operations (and how many) should be provided --- How (and how many) operands are specified --- How to encode these into consistent instruction formats Typical instruction set: ° 32 bit word ° basic operand addresses are 32 bits long ° basic operands, like integers, are 32 bits long ° in general case, instruction could reference 3 operands (A := B + C) challenge: encode operations in a small number of bits!
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April 21, 2010 Execution Cycle Instruction Fetch Instruction Decode Operand Fetch Execute Result Store Next Instruction ° Instruction Format or Encoding – how is it decoded? ° Location of operands and result – where other than memory? – how many explicit operands? – how are memory operands located? – which can or cannot be in memory? ° Data type and Size ° Operations – what are supported ° Successor instruction – jumps, conditions, branches
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April 21, 2010 ISA What are the important questions? What are the important questions? SIZE ? Opcode SIZE ? Data SIZE ? How many operations? How many kinds of data?
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April 21, 2010 GPR Operand Locations in Four ISA Classes
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April 21, 2010 ISA Classes ISA Classes? Stack Accumulator Register memory Register register/load store Operation Input1 Input2 Output
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April 21, 2010 ISA Classes: Stack Operate on TOS, put result TOS C= A+B? PUSH A PUSH B ADD POP C Memory not touched Operation TOP OF STACK MEMORY
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April 21, 2010 ISA Classes: Accumulator Accumulator : C= A+B? LOAD A - Put A in Accumulator ADD B - Add B with AC put result in AC STORE C- Put AC in C Operation Accumulator (AC) MEMORY
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April 21, 2010 ISA Classes: Register-Memory Input, Output: Register or Memory C= A+B? LOAD R1, A ADD R3, R1, B STORE R3, C Operation Register File MEMORY
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ISA Classes: Register-Register LOAD/STORE ARCH. C= A+B?
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2010 for the course CS 102 taught by Professor Kp during the Spring '10 term at Jaypee University IT.

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ISA - Outline ISA Introduction ISA Classifying Memory...

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