104_lab8 - Dr. Littles learning goals for this lab: Be able...

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Dr. Little’s learning goals for this lab: Be able to identify the alcohol, ester and acid functional groups in a chemical structure Be able to identify the alcohol, ester and acid functional groups in a chemical name Be able to name very simple alcohols, esters and acids Know the chemical test for alcohols Know the chemical test for esters Know the chemical test for carboxylic acids Know how to draw the chemical product of an esterification (given the chemical structures of the reactants) Know how to name the chemical product of an esterification
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Brief Summary about Covalent compounds (a.k.a. organic molecules) Nonmetal element atoms “desire” more electrons They can “steal” e’s from a metal atom, creating an ionic compound, OR… Two nonmetal element atoms can “bring” 1 e- towards the other and both “share” the 2 e-s; this is a covalent bond. Carbon has 4 valence e’s and can make 4 separate covalent bonds with different neighboring atoms We need to DRAW the arrangement of which atoms are covalently bonded to which neighboring atoms to fully understand the chemical behavior order and position of the atoms (and overall molecule shape) matters in its chemical behavior! But, since molecules can turn and move, it’s only the order and position relative to its neighbors that matter; not left to right order or top to bottom.
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Things we learn about organic molecule structures from doing enough of them C always makes 4 bonds to its neighboring atoms 4 single bonds or 2 double bonds or 1 double bond + 2 single bonds or 1 triple bond + 1 single bond H always makes 1 bond and must be on the outside edges of structure, never in center O (and S) make 2 bonds, have 2 lone pairs N makes 3 bonds and has 1 lone pair C C C C O O N N C H H H H O H
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Shortcuts in drawing structures Most molecules contain a LOT of Carbon- Hydrogen bonds These bonds are not very reactive, and so they are less interesting to chemists Chemists don’t usually draw out every C-H bond; instead they just list how many H’s are bonded to a particular Carbon: CH 3 CH 2 CH Remember, the C still needs a total of 4 bonds, so there must be another atom (‘?’) next to C that it’s bonded to – just not H C H H H ? C H ? H ? C H ? ? ?
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What is a functional group A specific set of nonmetal atoms covalently bonded in a specific arrangement Functional groups determine how the overall covalent (organic) molecule will chemically behave Molecules can have more than one functional group Note: we only classify an atom as being part of ONE functional group (the biggest one) – more on next pages Some functional groups are very chemically reactive and are considered “more important” than others; we classify and name a molecule based on its “most important” functional group.
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List of organic functional groups from highest priority to lowest priority Cations
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 02 taught by Professor Little during the Spring '10 term at S.E. Louisiana.

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104_lab8 - Dr. Littles learning goals for this lab: Be able...

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