Chap4 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
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Aqueous Solutions Solution: Homogeneous mixture of two or more pure substances. The solvent is present in the greatest quantity. All other substances are solutes. Q1: Identify solvent and solute. a. 1 g NaCl dissolved in 100 mL water. b. 5 mL Ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) dissolved in 20 mL water. c. 2 mL water dissolved in 50 mL ethanol. Turn in by the end of the lecture
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Dissociation When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them. This process is called dissociation .
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Electrolytes An electrolyte is a substance that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. Soluble ionic compounds tend to be electrolytes. A nonelectrolyte may dissolve in water, but it does not dissociate into ions when it does so. Molecular compounds tend to be nonelectrolytes, except for acids and bases.
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Electrolytes A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water. Strong electrolytes are: Strong acids: Table 4.2 (page 130) Strong bases: Table 4.2 (page 130) Soluble ionic salts: Table 4.1 (page 125) e.g. HCl( aq ) H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) A weak electrolyte dissociates only partially when dissolved in water. Weak electrolytes are: • Weak acids (CH 3 COOH …) • Weak bases (NH 3 …) e.g. HF( aq ) H + (aq) + F - ( aq )
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Problem 2 Show the dissociation of the following strong electrolytes: KBr
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Precipitation Reactions Precipitation reactions: reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product (precipitate). e.g. 2 KI( aq ) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) → PbI 2 (s) + 2KNO 3 (aq) Q: Name KI, Pb(NO 3 ) 2 , PbI 2 , KNO 3 and charges on individual metal ions.
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Metathesis (Exchange) Reactions A X + B Y → AY + BX Metathesis comes from a Greek word that means “to transpose” It appears the ions in the reactant compounds exchange, or transpose, ions Balance and complete the following reactions a.AgNO 3( aq ) + KCl ( aq ) AgCl (s) + KNO 3 (aq) b.BaCl 2( aq ) + K 2 SO 4( aq ) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 KCl (aq) c.FeSO 4( aq ) + 2 LiOH ( aq ) Li 2 SO 4 (aq) + Fe(OH) 2 (s)
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Chemical Equation The molecular equation lists the reactants and products in their molecular form. AgNO
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2010 for the course CHEM 1030 taught by Professor Meda during the Spring '08 term at Auburn University.

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Chap4 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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