Lec 34 & 35

Lec 34 & 35 - BIS2B Fall 2009 Lectures 34 & 35....

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1 Horn of Plenty. Thomas Hart Benton BIS2B Fall 2009 Lectures 34 & 35. Agriculture Brought Bounty! Anything else?
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2 Ecological Implications of Agriculture. Yes it has given us a good life, but what else? Is there only one kind of agriculture? No! Focusing in on the history of agriculture, and moving from “without to with” to the kinds of agriculture and their ecological results. From Hunting and Gathering To Pastoralism Swidden, aka Slash and Burn Large Scale, Sedentary Agriculture Industrial Ag, with Haber-Bosch N and Fossil Fuels
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3 Pre-Agricultural Peoples.
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4 Pre-Agricultural Peoples Lived at Low Density. 1. Food resources mostly wild, uncultivated. a. People followed food over large tracts of land, lots land per capita. OR b. People concentrated upon high food density, low density away from rich sites. i. Salmon rivers, ii. Rich coastal sites, Native Americans on California Channel Islands. ii. Sites with particularly bountiful trees with nuts, Oaks and Native Americans in California, Jomon people of Japan). 2. Food availability driven by the seasons. Little storage, frequent famine (Good years, b>d: Bad Years, b<<d). 3. Good evidence of density dependent depletion of food. Fossils excavated from living sites show smaller food species as density . Conclusion. Pre-agricultural people had local negative impacts upon environment, but not regional or global ones.
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5 Pastoralists
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6 Pastoralists live at low density. They are nomadic (Bedouin, Maasi, Raika of India, Andean people, Sami). Goats, camels, sheep, drought resistant cattle, yak , llama & alpaca, reindeer. Mideast , Africa, Central Asia, Peru, polar regions. 1/3 of terrestrial earth is used by 30 million pastoralists. On marginal, low productivity lands With no private ownership. NOTE: Lands can’t be used by others, competition & conflict result.
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Lec 34 &amp;amp; 35 - BIS2B Fall 2009 Lectures 34 &amp; 35....

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