Rodents - XX.RodentsintheorderRodentia,familyMuridae

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XX. Rodents - in the order  Rodentia , family  Muridae   A. responsible for more human illness and death  than any other group of animals 1. rat-bite fever - caused by  Streptobacillus  moniliformis  (Gram - rod; pleomorphic; irregular  staining) symptoms are headache, chills, vomiting,  general malaise, cutaneous eruptions; caused by a  rat bite 2. leptospirosis - caused by  Leptospira interrogans   (spirochete) symptoms are anemia, jaundice,  kidney infection, seldom fatal;  due to direct or  indirect contact with infected rodent urine  
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Streptobacillus moniliformis Streptobacillus moniliformis
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rat bite fever rat bite fever
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leptospirosis leptospirosis
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3. plague - caused by  Yersinia pestis  (Gram -  rod)       4. murine typhus fever  a. rickettsial disease caused by  Rickettsia  typhi  and  Rickettsia felis b. flea-borne disease  c. fever, rash and falling blood pressure     5. salmonellosis
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Yersinia pestis             Yersinia pestis             plague plague
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Rickettsia typhi        Salmonella Rickettsia typhi        Salmonella
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B. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates  there are 10 8  rats in the US   1. estimated that each rat damages $1-10  worth  of food and other materials each year;   contaminates $5-100 more per year 2. therefore, rats cause five hundred million to  one billion dollars per year   3. estimated that 5-25% of all fires of unknown  origin are caused by rats cutting through  insulation and exposing electrical wiring, or by  their use of flammable materials in their nests
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C. single best way to distinguish the rodent from other  mammals is by the location and shape of their teeth - there  is a single pair of well-developed incisors in both the upper  and lower jaw; these incisors are separated from molars by  a definite gap     D. three species of rodents of principal concern in the US:   the Norway rat, the roof rat, and the house mouse        1. all members imported into the US      2. all have tails with fine scales and few hairs 3. commensal rodents - term often used for the  animals, refers to the fact that these animals live at  man's expense, without contributing anything beneficial  
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rodent incisors rodent incisors
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E. Norway rat -  Rattus norvegicus 1. also known as the:  brown rat; house  rat; barn rat; sewer rat and wharf rat       2. predominant rat in the US;  very  aggressive towards other species       3. arrived in California about 1850;  not  known when it arrived in the east 
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Norway rat Norway rat
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F. description of Norway rat 1. total length = 13 to 18.5 inches a. body is heavy and stocky - adults weigh one pound, 
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Rodents - XX.RodentsintheorderRodentia,familyMuridae

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