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BIO 315 Lecture 12 - Classification of Eukaryotic...

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Unformatted text preview: Classification of Eukaryotic Microorganisms DOMAIN: Eukarya KINGDOMS : Protista - (unicellular eukaryotes), includes algae, protozoa, and slime molds - extremely paraphyletie group! Fungi - (1nulticellular eukaryotes), includes yeasts, molds, etc. Animalia - (multieellular eukaryotes), mainly certain microscopic worms and rotifers. KINGDOM MOHERA DOMAIN BACTERIA DOMAIN ARCHAEA D/—DHAIN EUKARYA /Plants H“: Nfl/r—DDW‘. PRC}? ES l A \V émngl Anlrnaia Kingdom Protista: Algae (usually viewed as a “Sub-Kingdom) - Algae are ”plant-like” protists, in that they photosynthesize using chlorophyll (they are photoautotrophs) . They are usually unicellular, although there are some apparent exceptions (like r“"sea'oateedsi’i'). - They almost always live in aquatic environments, where they are important primary producers. Divisions of Algae: “Seaweeds” Multioellular with no true tissues * Phaeophyta - “the brown algae”. commonly called “kelps”. They appear brown or tan because they contain an accessory pigment called fucoxanthin. Algin, a food thickener/emulsifier, is obtained from them. Representative genus: Sargassum * Rhodophyta - ”the red algae”. They appear reddish because they contain phycobilin accessory pigments. Agar. used as bacterial media. is obtained from them. So is the food additive carrageenan. Representative genus: Gelid‘ium Algal Divisions: contid . Chlorophyta - ”the green algae”. Most are unicellular with cellulose cell walls (Spyrogyra = "pond scum"); (Ulvo = sea lettuce, which is a inulticellular seaweed). - Green algae are almost certainly the ancestors of modern terrestrial plants. - Unlike the brown and red algae, the green algae contain many freshwater forms. Planktonic (“floating”) algal Divisions - Chrysophyta - The “diatoms” - possess cell walls of silicon dioxide, often complex and beautiful shapes. - Dinophyta or Pyrrophyta — The “dinoflagellates” - known for their production of neurotoxins during spring "blooms”, often called ”red tides”. - Both are the major primary producers of the marine world, and produce the majority of the molecular oxygen on earth. - Fossil fuels are largely the remains of these two groups. Kingdom Protista: Protozoa (often Viewed as a “Sub-Kingdom”) . Protozoa are "animal-like” protists in that they are chemoheterotrophs. . They are exclusively unicellular. ' They live in soil and water, and often in symbiotic relationships with animals (like termites). - Some are pathogens. Phyla of Protozoa Sarcodina - the “amoeba” - Amoebas use pseudopods to move; Entamoeba is the cause of amoebic dysentery. Mastigophora - the ”flagellates” - Flagellates use flagella to move. Giardz'c causes giardiasis (”beaver fever”). vvhich campers often get. It causes severe G-I distress. Ciliophora - ”the ciliates”. Ciliates move by means of cilia. Generally not medically important. Representative genus: Paramecium Apicomplexa - obligate intracellular parasites. An interesting example is Plasmodium. which causes malaria. Plasmodmm life cycle: example of a complex protozoan parasite - Piasmodmm grows by sexual reproduction in the Anopheles mosquito; if the mosquito “bites” a human, the infective particles, called sporozoites, enter the blood and travel to the liver. - They multiply (by schizogeny) in the liven and the new cells are called merozoites; these enter the blood and infect red blood cells. - As they grow asexually, the red blood cells eventually rupture, releasing more merozoites and toxins which cause the fever and chills associated with the disease. Plasmodmm life cycle . Some sexual cells called gainetocytes are also formed, and can be picked up by another mosquito to repeat the cycle. ' The mosquito is called the DEFINITIVE HOST because it harbors the sexual stage; humans are called the INTERh/[EDIATE HOST, because asexual reproduction occurs in us. ® The Infected mquim bite-”nutter persen and the mm migmethmugh the hhudmeamtothe llven @ immunitudevehp Sexual Reproduction 5591'“. Repmducflnn @ Sip-mm underage in II'IEWW schizn-gmyhthe liter and then migrate tn the memeites are urea-heed salivary glands nfthe which then enter'fl'te meat-lulu. Heedfireem hfecting nut-t».I red bleed cells. spermitenn—h .tall1.rar:».lr gland Item 1-1— male garn 31135?“ intermediate rug Memdfldewleps _. . ._ . Inta rlrtg stage In the . - . " red mun-u cell. 9a I E " -' .. .. ' ' - ' “mitten-tee straws @ ' " and dun-ides. and mere Fmtilieathn auteur: mermltels are in me HIM-mild! digestive ttacttu (1-) memzeltes fuma mete M05111 ultra mm bites :3 {definitive host} Immwpm'fim l3 mmmdmmmm gametecnes. male and femaie games: which mmmammdmmm thelfl‘e cycle. Kingdom FUNGI Fungi are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemoheterotrophs. They are usually decomposers living in the soil, but some cause disease. Yeasts are the only unicellular fungi - they are placed in this kingdom because of their striking similarity to other fungi. Fungi have cell walls made of chitin. Divisions of Fungi - Fungi are classified based on the type of sexual spore they make. - Zygomycota - the “conjugation fungi” - Representative genus: Rhizopus, the common black bread mold. Zygomycetes produce zygospores sexually: from the union of two compatible strands of the fungi (hyphae). - Ascomycota - ”the sac fungi” - Representatit-Te genera: Neurospom, a mold; Saccl’raromyces, a yeast The sexual ascospores are enclosed in a sac-like “ascus”. Zygomycota life cycle .Spnres are [alga-med . Aerial hypha produces I. ta pr 0 d u: e 5 from spamnglum I 5pm germinates 3 WNWQEW” aflspng ranglum to produce hwha Spamming-ares lfipmanglum bursts ' ta: release spares flflawngamr = and meiosis '- Ammal reproduction /t Izvgflspure I Gamma farms “Plasmogamy at tlpnf hypha . Spare germlmtes IVegetatiw-re to produce hyphen mrc-e-liurn gnaw-s Ascomycota life cycle As: ' Imam produces .to £12259“; II Aims-pure genuinates WNW": con Hophum amp-ates tn produce hypha Ifiscmpures harm from fused c2115 by meiosis fl Cuninfiuspnmgminates to produce hypha More fungal Divisions . Basidiomyoota - "the club fungi” - most things we reeognize as “mushrooms” belong in this division. Sexual basidiospores are present at the tips of stalk-like appendages oalled basidia. Most are maeroseopie. . Deuterornyoota - Not observed to produce sexual spores, but when they are, they can be reeategorized into the appropriate group. Basidiomyc life cycle More about fungi We will discuss fungal diseases later. Yeast are important commercially in the making of bread, beer. wine. and spirits. Spoilage of foods by molds is more common than bacterial spoilage. Many fungi are plant parasites (Chestnut blight). Lichens . Lichens represent a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an algae. They are quite common and are often pioneer species ecologically. Kingdom Animalia: Phyla - Platyhelminthes - ”the flatwerms” — Trematedes, 0r ”flukes”, attach to host tissue and suck tissue fluids for nutrition. — Cestedes, 0r ”tapeworms”, generally exist in the G-I tract and eat a lot of their host's feed! Disgustingly, they can get quite large (greater than 20 ft). Kingdom Animalia: Phyla - Nematoda - the ”roundworms” - Generally not parasites, and are very ubiquitous in soil and water. — ”Pinworms" and ”hookworms" are the exceptions. We will discuss the diseases they cause at a later time. - Rotifera (rotifers) - free-living freshwater organisms also referred to as “wheel creatures.” Not pathogenic. Kingdom Animalia: Phyla - Arthropoda (as vectors) —Class Insecta - insects, like the mosquito (malaria) — Class Arachnida - ticks (Lyme disease) (related to spiders) Arthreped Vector Example: The Mesquite {Order J Diptera, Class .. lnsecta) McnquitD-J tlfinfimit a variety of infettinue agents \_ - z“. ll. ineluding pretiatx [MdL-Iridl and H virusee [yeH-uw fever. Wefl Nile. drhnvirdf encephalitis!- ...
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