Lecture 13.ppt - Prokaryotic cells: circular chromosome,...

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Unformatted text preview: Prokaryotic cells: circular chromosome, non-Mendelian inheritance Eukaryotic cells: genes carried on linear chromosomes in the nucleus are inherited according to Mendelian rules due to chromosome segregation during meiosis Butthere are organelles in eukaryotic cells such as mitochondria and chloroplasts that contain their own chromosomes. Mutations in the DNA of these chromosomes can lead to diseases that are not transmitted in a Mendelian way. One phenotype that is scored in yeast is colony size: grande (big) petite (little) Mate MAT grande X MATa petite : Diploid is grande Is the petite colony size phenotype due to a single gene? MAT grande MATa petite Put through meiosis; dissect tetrads If colony size is due to a single gene, then expect 2 grande : 2 petite segregation in the tetrads MAT grande MAT grande MATa petite MATa petite Not observed! Instead the grande phenotype segregates 4 grande : 0 petite MAT grande MAT grande MATa grande MATa grande Whats going on? Turns out the mutation that causes small colonies is pleiotropic and has another phenotype--petite mutants are unable to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources such as glycerol. Petite cells grow when glucose is the carbon source but not when glycerol is the carbon source Glucose glycolysis pyruvate 2 ATP acetyl-CoA CO 2 + H 2 Krebs cycle Glycerol 12-14 ATP The Krebs cycle occurs in a specialized eukaryotic organelle called the mitochondrion....
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Lecture 13.ppt - Prokaryotic cells: circular chromosome,...

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