Review for Research Final

Review for Research Final - What is content analysis? It...

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What is content analysis? - It systematically examines the words and pictures that are published, broadcast, or spoken – they may be found in the form of a newspaper, magazine, book, play, newsletter, house organ, or on TV, cable, or a Web site - Related to coding - Content analysis limits itself to the produced content alone and draws conclusions based on what is there - “Research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication - The Content Analysis Codebook: o Includes instructions and coding definitions o SIMILAR TO WHAT WE WOULD PLUG INTO SPSS Ex. 31 – law enforcement; 32 – Legislature; 33 – Media and Communication; etc. o Coding Categories must have Validity asks: Is the category an accurate representation of the content to be coded? Reliability addresses the issue of consistency – if two coders coded the same content, would they assign the content to the same categories? o Levels of Measurement Nominal level of measurement: news stories can be labeled and sorted into mutually exclusive categories, but there is no order to the categories Ordinal level of measurement: the categories are labeled, sorted, and ordered from positive to negative Ratio level of measurement: Length – exact seconds coded Etc. more levels of measurement listed in Ch. 3 (we were previously tested on these) o Pretesting the Content Analysis Codebook After you train new coders, researchers use them to pretest the content analysis codebook The pretest should be conducted on a sample of the content that represents the various types of issues that will be encountered Ex. having coders practice code different subjects that are positive, neutral, and negative helps increase the reliability of the coding Pretesting helps to identify coding categories that are not clear, comprehensive, and do not overlap other categories as well as those that are deficient and must be developed further o Inter-coder Reliability Tests Measures the consistency of coders in coding the content Coders will code content exactly the same, producing 100 percent agreement, or a coefficient of reliability 100 percent (100% sure that it is reliable)
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Most widely used formula computes a coefficient of reliability by stating the ratio of decisions that coders agreed on to the total number of decisions made by each coder o Standards for Good Inter-Coder Reliability Discuss any and all discrepancies The research expert should pay attention to both types of discrepancies: routine clerical errors & differences in opinions on how to categorize the information Once the codebook has been revised, the research expert should instruct the coders to code another sample, then another reliability test – this should increase of coefficient of reliability to 80% or above o The training session familiarizes coders with the purpose of the content analysis study, the content that will
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Review for Research Final - What is content analysis? It...

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