GEOG101_-_Lecture_16

GEOG101_-_Lecture_16 - Climate Change: Global Impacts &...

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Unformatted text preview: Climate Change: Global Impacts & Actions Zainab Moghal, MES, MCIP PhD Candidate, Dept of Geography & Environmental Mgmt March 11, 2010 Overview of Lecture Sources of anthropogenic climate change a Indicators of climate change a Global impacts a Future projections a Vulnerable regions a Climate change and sustainable development Actions a Complexities and fairness a Mitigation and adaptation a Global governance a Economics of climate change a Canada’s perspective a More information Climate Change ‘Any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity ’ IPCC, 2007 a Q : What are some key sources of anthropogenic climate change? Sources of anthropogenic climate change: 1. Greenhouse gases Human induced climate change due to dramatic increases in Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations following industrial revolution: C0 2 , CH 4 , N 2 0, CFCs Earth depends on effect of GHGs to warm planet’s temperature, yet amount and rate of GHGs increasing and intensifying warming effect. Atmospheric concentration of C0 2 increased from a pre-industrial value of 280ppm to 381ppm in 2006 (+35%). Exceeds natural C0 2 range over last 650,000 years (180 – 300ppm) Sectoral & Regional GHGs Future geographic distribution of GHG emissions, 1995 - 2035 Sources of anthropogenic climate change: 2. Land use change Sources of anthropogenic emissions: 3. Aerosols (cooling factor) Global dimming : Aerosol particles (pollution) in the atmosphere reduce/reflect the amount of irradiance (light striking) at the Earth's surface. a Future source of warming ? Cleaning up air pollution may lead to increases in temperature. The effects of global dimming might be masking the true effects of global warming . Indicators of Climate Change: 1. Instrumental record of climate Eleven of the last twelve years (1995–2006) rank among the 12 warmest in the instrumental record of global surface temperature since 1850. a The linear warming trend over the last 100 years (1906 to 2005) = 0.74°C. Trend over the last 50 years is nearly twice that for the last 100 years. Indicators in Natural Systems: 2a. Cryosphere Satellite data since 1978 show that annual average Arctic sea ice extent has shrunk by 2.7% per decade, with larger decreases in the summer, of 7.4% per decade. It is also becoming thinner and there is less multi-year ice. a Record arctic sea-ice melt in 2007, where ice shrunk to its lowest levels since record keeping began 30 years ago. Indicators in Natural Systems: 2b. Ecosystems and Species Warming is affecting terrestrial biological systems , including: earlier timing of spring events (i.e. leaf-unfolding, bird migration and egg-laying); poleward and upward shifts in ranges in plant and animal species; and longer thermal growing seasons....
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2010 for the course ARTS GEOG101 taught by Professor Geofferyshifflet during the Spring '10 term at Waterloo.

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GEOG101_-_Lecture_16 - Climate Change: Global Impacts &...

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