test 1 review with questions

test 1 review with questions - I. Bioenergetics a....

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I. Bioenergetics a. Metabolism : total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body i. Anabolic - Synthesis of molecules ii. Catabolic reactions - Breakdown of molecules b. Bioenergetics i. Converting foodstuffs (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) into energy II. Cellular Chemical Reactions a. Endergonic reactions (Energy In) i. Require energy to be added b. Exergonic reactions (Energy Out) i. Release energy c. Energy Coupled reactions i. Liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives an endergonic reaction d. Helpful website: http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch04/energy_changes.html III. The Mitochondria a. Where the TCA cycle and ETC take place- “powerhouse” of the cell i. ATP b. Heat produced here c. Calcium stored in mitochondria (mt) d. mt health is directly related to the overall health of the cell i. mutations in mtDNA lead to cell death or apoptosis IV. Mitochondrial DNA a. There are 2 Type of DNA……. b. mtDNA vs. nuclear DNA c. What Damages mtDNA? i. Free Radicals 1. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion 2. Unpaired electron in outer shell d. The More Damage = The Faster We Age
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e. What protects mtDNA? i. Antioxidants-reduce action of free radicals V. Enzymes: know rate limiting enzymes a. Catalysts that regulate the speed of reactions i. Lowers the energy of activation by changing the transition state b. Regulated by physiological environment i. Temperature ii. pH iii. May allow rxns to occur at lower temperatures c. Interact with specific substrates i. Lock and key model ii. May change selectivity of enzyme for substrate VI. Enzymes and Exercise Physiology a. Superoxide Dismutase b. Glutathione Peroxidase c. Creatine Kinase d. Many Enzymes Associated with Metabolism e. Often advertised as supplements for athletes. VII. Fuels for Exercise a. Carbohydrates (Complex vs. Simple?) i. Glucose 1. Stored as glycogen 2. What’s better….simple or complex CHO? Why? b. Fats i. Primarily fatty acids 1. Stored as triglycerides c. Proteins i. Not a primary energy source during exercise VIII. High-Energy Phosphates
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a. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) i. Consists of adenine, ribose, and three linked phosphates b. Formation i. ADP + P i ATP c. Breakdown i. ATP ATPase ADP + P i + Energy IX. Bioenergetics a. Formation of ATP i. Phosphocreatine (PC) breakdown- fast energy ii. Degradation of glucose and glycogen (glycolysis) iii. Oxidative formation of ATP b. Anaerobic pathways i. Do not involve O 2 ii. PC breakdown and glycolysis c. Aerobic pathways i. Require O 2 ii. Oxidative phosphorylation X. The Breakdown of Glucose: An Exergonic Reaction a. XI. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions a. Oxidation i. Molecule accepts electrons (along with H + ) b. Reduction
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i. Molecule donates electrons ii. Both examples below are reduction reactions c. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) i. NAD + 2H + NADH + H + d. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) i. FAD + 2H + FADH 2 e. NADH and FADH are produced by the ETC i. NAD and FAD are hydrogen/electron carriers
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test 1 review with questions - I. Bioenergetics a....

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