test_1_review_2-19-10

test_1_review_2-19-10 - Bioenergetics Metabolism: total of...

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Bioenergetics Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body Anabolic Synthesis of molecules Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics Converting foodstuffs (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) into energy
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Cellular Chemical Reactions Endergonic reactions (Energy In) Require energy to be added Exergonic reactions (Energy Out) Release energy Energy Coupled reactions Liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives an endergonic reaction Helpful website: http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch04/en
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The Mitochondria Where the TCA cycle and ETC take place- “powerhouse” of the cell ATP Heat produced here Calcium stored in mitochondria (mt) mt health is directly related to the overall health of the cell mutations in mtDNA lead to cell death or apoptosis
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Mitochondrial DNA There are 2 Type of DNA……. mtDNA vs. nuclear DNA What Damages mtDNA? Free Radicals Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion Unpaired electron in outer shell The More Damage = The Faster We Age What protects mtDNA? Antioxidants-reduce action of free radicals
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Enzymes Catalysts that regulate the speed of reactions Lowers the energy of activation by changing the transition state Regulated by physiological environment Temperature pH May allow rxns to occur at lower temperatures Interact with specific substrates Lock and key model May change selectivity of enzyme for substrate
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Enzymes and Exercise Physiology Superoxide Dismutase Glutathione Peroxidase Creatine Kinase Many Enzymes Associated with Metabolism Often advertised as supplements for athletes.
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Fuels for Exercise Carbohydrates (Complex vs. Simple?) Glucose Stored as glycogen What’s better….simple or complex CHO? Why? Fats Primarily fatty acids Stored as triglycerides Proteins Not a primary energy source during exercise
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High-Energy Phosphates Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Consists of adenine, ribose, and three linked phosphates Formation Breakdown ADP + P i ATP ADP + P i + Energy ATP ATPase
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Bioenergetics Formation of ATP Phosphocreatine (PC) breakdown- fast energy Degradation of glucose and glycogen (glycolysis) Oxidative formation of ATP Anaerobic pathways – Do not involve O 2 PC breakdown and glycolysis Aerobic pathways – Require O 2 Oxidative phosphorylation
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The Breakdown of Glucose: An Exergonic Reaction Fig 3.3
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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation Molecule accepts electrons (along with H + ) Reduction Molecule donates electrons Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) NADH and FADH are produced by the ETC NAD and FAD are hydrogen/electron carriers FAD + 2H + FADH 2 NAD + 2H + NADH + H +
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Control of Bioenergetics Glycogen Glucose 6-phosphate Phosphoglyceraldehyde
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2010 for the course KIN 3513 taught by Professor Porter during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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test_1_review_2-19-10 - Bioenergetics Metabolism: total of...

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