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4471-study guide

4471-study guide - Durkheim Mechanical Solidarity small...

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Durkheim : Mechanical Solidarity - small, homogenous society; simple division of labor; cohesion based on similarities; emphasis on communalism (group/community); strong, unified collective conscience (norms) Organic Solidarity - large, complex heterogeneous society; complex division of labor (specialization); cohesion based on differences; emphasis on individualism; weakened collective conscience-differentiated Collective Conscience - (culture) shared system of ideas, a shared way of thinking, shared system of understandings, shared system of values and norms that characterize not just individuals but collectively as a whole Repressive Law -(penal) is characterized by punishment, by suffering, by some loss applied to the individual Restitutive Law -(compensatory, therapeutic, or conciliatory law) can be characterized as “the return of things as they were, in the re-establishment of troubled relations to their normal state” restores what is lost when a crime occurs Quantitative Penal Control - states that the intensity of punishment is the grater the more closely societies approximate to a less developed type; the evolution of punishment follows the evolution of society Qualitative Penal Control -states that deprivation of liberty and of liberty alone, varying in time according to the seriousness of the crime tends to become more and more normal means of social control Blood Covenant - creates ties outside immediate family; they duplicate the primary bond of kinship Real Contract - one thing is exchanged immediately for another and there is no relationship Solemn Ritual Contract - a form of exchange and the bond that goes with it was a declaration of words (oath or invocation) Consensual Contract - contract between two people: came because of need of flexibility and more trading Just/Equity Contract
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