Lecture_Chapter_11 - 1 LECTURE Chapter 11 Music of the...

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LECTURE Chapter 11 Music of the Classic Period (1750-1820) Age of Reason and Enlightenment (Page 241) The term classical is applied to music in several different ways. In one sense, we speak of a “classic” as any work of lasting value. “Classical” sometimes designates so-called serious or concert music, as opposed to popular music. Composers of different style periods—Bach, Monteverdi, Beethoven, for example---may all be considered classical composers. In a narrower and more accurate sense, the term is applied to European music from about 1750 to about 1820, particularly the works of Haydn, and Mozart and the transitional figure of Beethoven. In looking at the Baroque era, we found that the scientific methods and discoveries of Galileo and Newton vastly changed people’s view of the world. Faith in the power of reason became so great that it began to undermine the authority of the aristocracy and religious establishment. This time in history became known as the “Age of Enlightenment.” Philosophers and writers----especially Voltaire-----believed that reason was the best guide for human conduct and attacked the privileges held by the clergy and aristocracy . Intellectuals glorified the power of the individual to control and order the world We begin to see the rights of the middle class struggling to emerge. The period from 1750 to 1820 is marked by political and social wars: o Seven Years’ War in Europe o The American Revolution/ Declaration of Independence (Freedom from British rule) o The French Revolutions (King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette beheaded) o The Napoleonic Wars (a commoner, Napoleon, taking over the French government ) Political and economic power shifted from the aristocracy and church to the middle class. Slogans like Liberty, equality, and fraternity could be heard 1
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The viewpoint was that governments should reflect the will and interests of the people, which of course, was the attitude of the American and French revolutions. Several rulers in the 1700s (1780-1790) implemented the ideas of the age of enlightenment. Emperor Joseph II of Austria 1) freed the peasantry, 2) promoted education and 3) reduced the power of the clergy by closing monasteries and convents 4) encouraged free press (300 newspapers in Vienna) and 5) supported music and literature with his patronage. The 18 th century or 1700s was an age that valued intelligence, wit, and sensitivity. It cultivated elegant conversation and the social arts. The middle class made more money and merchants, doctors, and government officials could afford larger homes, better clothes, and better food. But, they also wanted luxuries like theater, literature, and music. The middle class had a great influence on music:
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2010 for the course BUS 255 taught by Professor Mcgee during the Spring '10 term at Aarhus Universitet.

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Lecture_Chapter_11 - 1 LECTURE Chapter 11 Music of the...

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