chapter 08 2008 (PPTminimizer)

chapter 08 2008 (PPTminimizer) - Formation of the Solar...

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Formation of the Solar System
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The Search for Origins The Search for Origins Learning Objectives Learning Objectives What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Where did the solar system come from? What caused the orderly patterns of motion in our solar system?
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What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain?
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Patterns in the Solar System Patterns in the Solar System 1. Patterns of motion of the large bodies Orbit and rotate in same direction on ecliptic plane 2. Existence of two types of planets Terrestrial and Jovian 3. Existence of smaller bodies Asteroids and comets in ccw orbits. Random orientation of Oort cloud comets 4. Notable exceptions to usual patterns Orientation of Uranus, Earth’s large moon, backward spin of Venus, etc.
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What theory best explains the features of our solar system?
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Nebular/Accretion Theory Nebular/Accretion Theory The Nebular Theory states that our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar gas cloud— the solar nebula. (Nebula is the Latin word for cloud) Immanuel Kant and Pierre Laplace proposed the nebular hypothesis over two centuries ago! A large amount of evidence now supports this idea Pierre-Simon Laplace Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827) (1749-1827)
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Where did the solar system come from?
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Interstellar Medium Interstellar Medium The Solar System formed from a cold dark interstellar cloud of gas and dust . Process took 30-40M years If cold enough, gravitational instabilities can cause the cloud to collapse under its own gravity (perhaps pushed by a nearby supernova?) Eagle Nebula Eagle Nebula
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Galactic Recycling Galactic Recycling Elements heavier than hydrogen, that formed planets, were made in stars from hydrogen. Stars then spit these elements into the interstellar medium New stars and planets can form from this now- enriched material.
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Evidence from Other Gas Clouds Evidence from Other Gas Clouds Orion Nebula Orion Nebula We can see what appear to be planetary systems forming in other interstellar gas clouds, lending support to the nebular theory.
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What caused the orderly patterns of motion in our solar system?
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Dynamics of Dynamics of Collapsing Cloud Collapsing Cloud The cloud will statistically have some rotation about some axis. The rotation speed of the cloud increased as the cloud contracted, conserving angular momentum !
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Collisions between gas particles in cloud gradually reduce random motions All the material then goes around in the same direction. Planets will form moving in the direction of this rotating cloud! Particle Collisions
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2010 for the course BUS 255 taught by Professor Mcgee during the Spring '10 term at Aarhus Universitet.

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chapter 08 2008 (PPTminimizer) - Formation of the Solar...

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