12-12-09_P200_StudyGuide

12-12-09_P200_StudyGuide - What is the propaganda model of...

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What is the propaganda model of the media? The Propaganda Model: Lapdog -Chomsky and Herman, Manufacturing Consent (1988) -Totalitarian and authoritarian states use the threat of force to control opinion and suppress dissent -Democratic societies use subtle, non-violent means to control public opinion and manufacture consent through media -Chomsky: “Propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian state.” -Result: -The media replicates elite opinion -Acts as a propaganda arm of government Propaganda Model: Media Filters -Media Filters Limit Information and Debate: -In a democratic society, news and information passes through subtle media filters before it reaches the public Not a conspiracy theory Media Filters - Filter: Corporate Ownership of the Media -Corporate Media Consolidation -News as revenue Generation -Corporate shareholders demand profit -Corp. profit motive: restrict information and points of view that conflict with the goals of the corporation -Corporate ownership shares types of stories - Filter: Dependence on Advertising Revenues -The media is in the business of selling consumers to advertisers -Target market often affluent, educated, decision makers -News as Entertainment as attract Ratings: -Emphasize ratings-grabbing stories, such as scandals, or stories that induce fear -Lack of in-depth policy analysis, in favor of glib talking points debates -Filter: Dependence on Government and Corporate Sources -Media has a need for constant and continuing access to information -“Symbiotic Relationship” forms between media and their sources -Media avoids confrontation in order to preserve access to powerful sources of information, such as the Pentagon -Politicians adept at “spin” tactics and use of anonymous sourcing rules to manipulate or shape news cycle -Filter: Time and Space Constraints -Limits arguments to simple stories rather than complex critiques -Tend to support conventional wisdom
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-Or, simple contrarianism -Filter: “Flak” -Attempts to discredit or demonize people who disagree with prevailing government point of view - Recent Examples? What is the competitive market model of the media? The Market Model: Watchdog -Marketplace of Ideas: Classic view of free speech in the U.S. -The competitive media market provides: -Vigorous debate, diversity of ideas and viewpoints provided by multiple outlets for news and information -Reasonably balanced and accurate information to the public about important public policy issues -Result: Media as Watchdog acts as Independent check on government power What do pluralists, hyperpluralists, and stratificationists think of the media as an effective institution of American democracy? Voting: is it rational? Does voting matter?
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2010 for the course PLSI 200 taught by Professor Schendan during the Fall '08 term at S.F. State.

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12-12-09_P200_StudyGuide - What is the propaganda model of...

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