Chapter 2 Key Terms

Chapter 2 Key Terms - Janice Novick PSY245...

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Janice Novick PSY245 Industrial/Organizational Psychology Key Terms Chapter 2 Archival Research – Research relying on secondary data sets that were collected either for general or specific purposes identified by an individual or organization. Attribute – A dimension along which individuals can be measured and along which individuals vary. Bell-Shaped Curve –In which most of the observations are clustered around the mean with increasingly fewer observations as we move out along the continuum in either direction. Case Studies – Examinations of a single individual, group, company, or society. Causal Inference –A conclusion, drawn from research data, about the likelihood of a casual relationship between two variables. Coefficient of Determination – The percentage of variance in a criterion that is accounted for by a predictor. Concurrent Validity – The extent to which a test predicts a criterion that is measured at the same time that the test is conducted. Construct – An abstract quality, such as intelligence or motivation, that is not observable and is difficult to measure. Construct Validity – The extent to which a test measures the underlying construct that it was intended to measure. Content Validity – The degree to which a test or predictor covers a representative sample of the quality being assessed. Control – The manipulation of antecedent conditions to affect behavior. Convergent Validity – The degree to which a measure of the construct in which we are interested is related to measures of other, similar constructs. Correlational Designs – Studies that employ observational methods. Also called descriptive. Correlation Coefficient – A statistic that measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. PSY 245 – Chapter 2 Page 1
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Criterion-Related Validity – Whether the test is a good predictor of attitudes, behavior, or performance. Cross-Sectional Data – Collected at one point in time from a single group of respondents. Deduction – An approach to science in which we start with theory and propositions and then collect data to test those propositions – working from theory to data. Dependent Variable – The variable of interest, or what we design our experiments to assess. Also called criteria, outcomes, or consequences. Description – the accurate portrayal or depiction of the phenomenon. Descriptive Statistics – A summary of the data. Determinism – Behavior is orderly and systematic and doesn’t just happen by change. Discoverability – Suggest not only that behavior is orderly but also that this orderliness can be discovered. Divergent Validity – The degree to which a measure of the construct in which we are interested is not related to measures of other, dissimilar constructs. Empiricism
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Chapter 2 Key Terms - Janice Novick PSY245...

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