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lecture%20one - Overview of World Issues – Overview of...

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Unformatted text preview: Overview of World Issues – Overview of World Issues – Internet sites; including http://www.un.org/partners/civil_society/agenda.htm http://www.globalissues.org/ Or just search on “global agenda” and have fun Goal: Pursuing Peace Goal: Pursuing Peace International and National Security: War and World Politics Topics: Terrorism Arms Control: WMD Drugs and Crime Prevention Electoral Assistance Peacekeeping Missions Pursuing Prosperity Pursuing Prosperity The International Economy, National Competition and International Economic Cooperation Topics: Trade Cooperation Development Agenda and Cooperation Regional Trade Agreements Monetary Cooperation Pursuing Preservation Pursuing Preservation Human Rights and Ecological Concerns Topics: Humanitarian Assistance Human Rights Abuses Infectious Diseases Resource Issues and Cooperation Environmental Issues Population Issues II. History/Evolution of World II. Politics – Western perspective A. Greek City States B. Medieval –full cycle Empires, provinces, Empires B. Medieval –full cycle Empires, provinces, Empires Roman Empire – universal domination – ended 476 collapse in Europe From 500­ mid to late 1300’s Two levels – Macro – Roman Catholic Church – Charlemagne and rise of the Holy Roman Empire ­ Micro – feudal states (dukedoms, fiefdoms, principalities) Rise of the Divine King – larger political units necessary for military protection and expansion—Absolute Authority of King. – larger, more universal domination once again. Expansion and military might (technological advances)­ EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION. Spain and Portugal ­­­England, France and Netherlands Rise of the Popular Sovereign – 1700’s – 1800’s Renaissance (1500); Reformation (1517) Thirty Year War (Bohemian, Danish, Swedish and French phases from 1618­1648 ended in the Treaty of Westphalia) Classic Liberalism C.. 1700­1800 C The basic principles of the Treaty of Westphalia shaped the relations between nation­states. The treaty formulated the doctrine of sovereignty, which declared a state's domestic conduct and institutions to be beyond the reach of other states. Recognized the sovereign, independent authority of German princes, the independence of the Netherlands and essentially the Holy Roman Empire as a real estate. In the wake of Reformation, the Catholic Churches’ ability to meddle in political affairs was restricted­­ STATE AND SOVERIGN WERE BECOMING SECULARIZED!!!! Treaty of Westphalia. Treaty of Westphalia Social Contract Theories—Classic Social Contract Theories—Classic Liberalism 1651 – Hobbes – Leviathan John Locke – Two Treatise on Government JJ. Rousseau – First and Second Discourses – 1762 French Revolution, Napoleon and Nationalism – 1800’s Concept of Nation/State solidified by Napoleon Multipolar System and Balance of Power World Domination by a Multi­polarized system England, France, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands­­­­ European Domination England, France, Russia, Prussia and Austria 1700­1800 (cont’d) 1700­1800 (cont’d) D.. 1800 D Westernization of the International System Industrialization (GB and US) Exploration and ColonizationImperialism pre­industrialized v. industrialized Imperalism ­ Euro/American domination of Asia, Africa, S. America and the rest of North­South AXIS For economic, social and political gain Economic – consumer/labor market & raw materials Political – allies, dependent and/or controlled political regimes Social ­ Social Darwinism – belief in “more” civilized societies Nationalism vs. Imperialism in late 1800’s E.. early 1900/20th Century – E Climax of Nationalism Rise of Communism – USSR – 1917 End of WWI – period of disillusionment The Irish poet W.B. Yeats wrote in The Second Coming (1921 ): “Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, The blood­dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned; The best lack all conviction, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity.” Wilson’s 14 point plan ­early 1919 End of Balance of Power/Multi­polar system WWII – The fall of Nationalism – Germany/Italy all nations to abide by a code of conduct that embraced free trade, freedom of the seas, open diplomacy, disarmament and resolution of disputes through mediation principle of self­determination (redraw map of Austro­Hungary, Ottoman empire and Russian empires to give people national sovereignty) last point was to establish a League of Nations, an assembly in which all nations would be represented and in which all international disputes would be given a fair hearing and an opportunity for peaceful solutions F.. Post WWII F Rise of Bipolar System Cold War­­ US vs. USSR policy of containment and expansion Self­determined Nationalism within the parameters of the two superpowers Ie. “The Truman Doctrine” TRUMAN DOCTRINE MARCH 1947 One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion. This was a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over countries which sought to impose their will, and their way of life, upon other nations. To ensure the peaceful development of nations, free from coercion, the United States has taken a leading part in establishing the United Nations, The United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members. We shall not realize our objectives, however, unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes. This is no more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States. The peoples of a number of countries of the world have recently had totalitarian regimes forced upon them against their will… At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. Ibelieve that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. .. In addition to funds, I ask the Congress to authorize the detail of American civilian and military personnel to Greece and Turkey, at the request of those countries, to assist in the tasks of reconstruction, and for the purpose of supervising the use of such financial and material assistance as may be furnished. I recommend that authority also be provided for the instruction and training of selected Greek and Turkish personnel. The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world ­­ and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation. Nationalist movements 1950’s­1980’s 1950’s­1980’s End of colonial rule (ie India, Africa, Middle East) but the end of imperialism? Start of “neo­colonialism” Political components: Us vs. Them mentality Selective support and/or removal of political regimes Domino principle trade relations and/or economic development programs Modernization or Dependency?? Economic components: G.. G Decline of the Bipolar System Gorbachev and glasnost – 1980’s collapse of the Eastern Bloc Nationalist efforts (ie Baltic states) Globalization and Neoliberalism vs. State centered approach (variety of approaches; from nationalist efforts/ socialist economic policies to absolute state socialism H.. 21st Century – the new International System H.. Multipolar? limited Unipolar? Soverignty of nation/states vs. international network (transnationalism) Role of the United Nations? “War on Terror” II.Theories of World Politics II.Theories of World Politics A.. Realism – “a dog eat dog A world out there” pessimistic view on human nature; Darwinism; not based on morality Realism (cont’d) Realism (cont’d) 1. Emphasis on Power a. power is defined as A­B to do something types of power – force, exchange and mutuality b. facets of power threat of display of use of Realism (cont’d) Realism (cont’d) 2. Foreign policy = “realpolitik” a. take care of yourself first b. emphasis on BALANCE of POWER c. Peace through strength B.. Idealism – optimistic view on B nature; conflict begets more conflict 1. Emphasis on Justice a. ethical and cooperative standards of foreign policy b. détente, negotiation and compromise Idealism (cont’d) Idealism (cont’d) 2. Foreign policy = “idealpolitik” a. two stances i. Classic ­ cooperation while maintaining sovereignty ii. Neo – sovereignty may have to be sacrificed to international organizations IV. Levels of Analysis – IV. Micro/Macro levels of analysis Micro – Culture Macro – International Structures/Organizations ...
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