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Unformatted text preview: I ntroduction (1/19) Archaeology comes about around same time as sic fi and detective fiction Sections: o Thurs 3-4 o Thurs 5-6 o Fri 2-3 Office hours 2:30 4:30 Tues in 961 Sch. Ext. T HE ME 1: WHAT IS ARCHAEOLOGY? History of Archaeology (1/21) Developed in Europe in 18 th and 19 th century People have always been interested in the past o King Nabonidus c.556-539 BC Excavated the temple of Shamath at Sippur to determine who built it Why? o Political legitimacy, knowledge=power, become more powerful o His daughter, Ennigaldi-Nanna collected antiquities and put in first museum at Ur o Thucydides even wrote about excavations Archaeologists are very interested with origins o Want to identify starting points, transition points o During 12 th c. crusades British going through Europe, see all artifacts, come back to Britain and start looking at own monuments and say they are the equivalent to what they saw elsewhere They employ people to excavate these places in Britain Helena, mom of Constantine, ordered excavations to t ry and find the site of crucifixion of Christ Notion of buried treasure in ever-present even though it is mostly myth Wealthy aristocrats begin to publish their ideas about the past o William Camden published Britannia in 1586 First archaeological recorded article Archbishop of Ulster James Ussher in 1650 o Calculated date of creation to be 23 rd October 4004 BC James Hutton o Developed notion of stratification (layers of earth) Jacques Boucher de Perthes (1788-1868) o Found prehistoric flint and stone tools in France 1 In gravel beds at Somme valley Date of findings predate date of creation that had been established by But ton Archaeologists also obsessed with categorizing Theme of the use of the past in the present Archaeology in America (1/26) The Speculative Period (1492-1840) o Found relics (selfish reasons) o Travelled more o Most societies are fascinated by societies that preceded them o 1784 Thomas Jefferson dug a section through a burial mound on his property in Virginia People speculated that these mounds had not been built by indigenous Native Americans but had been built by a mythical race that has now vanished Jefferson used a scientific approach Careful method Recognized different layers in his trench Deduced that the mound had been re-used as burial place many times o Some argue that this excavation marks end of this period an beginning of next one The Classificatory-Descriptive Period (1840-1960) The Modern Period (1960-present) o Binford wrote article in 1962 Said archaeology should be carried out as anthropology Argued that we should look at modern day societies to see the pattern in the archaeological record Argued that past is still with us, still exists materially Studied hunter-gatherer groups and Eskimo groups in order to understand what he found in excavations...
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2010 for the course ACLG V2029 taught by Professor Brianboyd during the Spring '10 term at Columbia.
- Spring '10