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Lecture-14-Neurons_39004 - NervousSystems &glialcells...

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Nervous Systems Nervous Systems are comprised of neurons & glial cells Neurons: the functional units that utilize pulses of electric current to receive, transmit, & regulate the flow of information within the body. Neurons can transfer information over long distances via electrical signals & over short distance to cells by chemical signals. Types of information communicated: sensory control autonomic Types of information communicated: sensory, control autonomic functions, coordinate motor functions, memories, & more. • The information processing network The information processing network External/internal stimuli Æ sensory neurons ( afferent ) detect & transmit information to… Interneurons of CNS (process information) to information) to… Motor neurons or other efferent neurons (response/action) to effectors (muscles, organs, glands) Nerves : bundles of neurons
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Neuron Anatomy Glial cells: supportive functions for neurons: l t t ll l Dendrites: receive signals from other Cell Body: contains nucleus regulate extra cellular fluid, insulate axons, provide nutrients. neurons contains nucleus, & most organelles Axon hillock: generation of electrical signals that travel down the axon S ti t i l j ti Synaptic terminals: junctions ( synapses ) between axon branches of a pre synaptic cell with dendrites of a Axon: transmits signals post synaptic cell; communicate via neurotransmitters . to other cells
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Membrane Potentials A myriad of solute molecules exists in, and around, all cells. Many of these are charged atoms and molecules. Cellular transport processes generate concentration differences of these molecules across the cell membrane. As a result, a charge imbalance occurs across the plasma membrane generating a membrane potential : membrane side A side B side A side B + + + + + + + + + Move 3 ions from side B + + + + + + + + + + + + to side A 9 +, 6 3 +, 6 The charges on both sides + + + + 6 +, 6 6 + 6 opposite charges are are re arranged as follows 6 +, 6 No membrane potential (No Charge Difference) attracted to each other
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Charge “sorting” occurs as the surplus positive charges on one side (A) are attracted to the surplus of negative charges on the opposite side (B) of the membrane: side A side B + + + + + + + + 9 + 6 3 + 6 + + + + f 9 +, 6 3 +, 6 Remainder of fluid neutral Separated charges create potential Remainder of fluid neutral This generates an electrochemical potential : due to the forces of attraction (positive & negative charges) and the concentration differences of these chemicals (ions). Produces a voltage . Greater charge difference across membrane = higher voltage All cells have such a membrane potential
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The Ionic Environment In & Around a Neuron S di & P t i i h th k l i ti • Sodium & Potassium ions have the key roles in generating electrical signals in neurons.
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