Lecture-13-Hormones-_38902

Lecture-13-Hormones-_38902 - Hormones...

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Hormones & the Endocrine System Hormones are chemical messengers of the body that relay instructions to specific target cells. Endocrine system: endocrine cells in different glands & tissues in the body produce hormones. Essential role in maintaining homeostasis Regulates development, reproduction, metabolism, growth & behavior he nervous stem & ndocrine stem work gether as the The nervous system & endocrine system work together as the communication & control system of the body. Nervous system: reception, processing, & transmission of information; lt di ll & th i l f h rget cell Receptors neurons can regulate endocrine cells & their release of hormones Basic model for chemical signaling Target cell Endocrine cell, Neuron, or Secretion Response Molecular signal non endocrine cell into blood stream, interstitial fluid, or across a synapse Targets can be nearby or far away
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Types of Secreted Signaling Molecules I Endocrine cells release hormones into the blood ream stream. Found in organs, tissues, or may be grouped into endocrine glands. Local regulators act over short istances distances Paracrine: target cells are near the secreting cell(s) Autocrine: secreting cells are the target cells Some secreted molecules act as both paracrine & autocrine signals.
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euronal Signaling Types of Secreted Signaling Molecules II Neuronal Signaling Synaptic : communicate via neurotransmitters released into synapse Neuroendocrine : specialized neurons synthesize hormones ( neurohormones ) that are released into blood stream Such neurons are found in the brain (hypothalamus, pituitary gland) Neuronal signaling is much faster heromones released into ete rna l en ironment than endocrine signaling Pheromones : released into external environment – Communication between members of the same species: mate attraction marking territory mark trail to food source
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Chemical classes of hormones ater luble pes protein & peptide Water soluble types : protein & peptide types & amine types –I n t e r a c t with plasma membrane receptors n target cell surface on target cell surface Target cell response : Water soluble hormones elicit a signal transduc tion response involving G protein coupled receptors, second messengers (cAMP), or tyrosine receptor kinases, or a combination of these. Cellular response can be Cytoplasmic: tivate/inhibit cytoplasmic activate/inhibit cytoplasmic proteins or… Nuclear: activate/inhibit transcription factor(s) in nucleus, thereby turning on/off specific genes.
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Lipid Soluble Hormones pid luble types steroids & me Lipid soluble types : steroids & some amine types –I n t e r a c t with cytoplasmic receptors inside the target cell Target cell response : Lipid soluble hormones bind to cyotplasmic receptors; the receptor:hormone complex enters the nucleus, binds to DNA, & stimulates gene transcription.
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Lecture-13-Hormones-_38902 - Hormones...

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