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BIOL-1362-CH-12-16-Q_36709 - 1 CH 12‐16(Sadava Text CH...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CH 12‐16 (Sadava Text CH 9‐11): Questions to Think About CH 12 ‐ The Cell Cycle and CH 13 ‐ Meiosis 1. For what purposes does an organism carry out cell division? (Distinguish between the roles in prokaryotes & eukaryotes) What are the basic steps of any cell division? 2. What are the products of fission in prokaryotes and mitosis in eukaryotes? Why is mitosis in a eukaryote a more complex process than fission in a prokaryote? 3. Compare/contrast the organization of genetic material in eukaryotic cells vs. prokaryotic cells. Draw a replicated eukaryotic chromosome and label chromatid, sister chromatids, and centromere. What are sister chromatids? 4. What is the cell cycle and what are its phases? Breifly describe the G1, GO, S and G2 phases; what are these a part of? 5. How do chromosome movements occur during mitosis? What structures are involved in this process? 6. Draw out mitosis starting with a cell containing 4 chromosomes and label the stages. Provide 1‐2 of features that distinguish each stage of M phase. At what specific stage are chromosomes unreplicated? How many chromatids are there during metaphase? At what stages is the nuclear envelope not present? What is the function of centrioles/centrosomes? What is the function of the mitotic spindle? What is cytokinesis and when does this occur? How many chromosomes are present in each daughter cell? What distinguishes prophase from S & G2 of interphase? 7. How does binary fission occur in a prokaryote? 8. Which molecules are active in allowing the cell cycle to proceed and initiate cell division? What is the basic mechanism of how this works? Where are the cell cycle checkpoints that determine whether or not cell division can proceed? What kind of external signals stimulate cell division? What is density‐dependent inhibition? Anchorage dependence? 9. What is meiosis and what is the outcome of this process? What purpose does meiosis serve in eukaryotes and how is meiosis related to heredity? What are the roles of mitosis and meiosis in mammals such as humans? 10. What are somatic cells and germ cells? What is meant by diploid and haploid chromosome numbers and how do these relate to somatic & germ cells, respectively? 11. What are homologous chromosomes? Are they genetically identical? What do they represent? What do homologous chromosomes mean in terms of the number of genes an individual possesses? What is a karyotype? 12. Draw out meiosis starting with a cell containing 4 chromosomes and label the stages. a. How many times does DNA replication occur during meiosis? How many cell divisons occur? a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 2 b. How many chromosomes are present in each daughter cell at the end of meiosis I? end of meiosis II? c. At what stage(s) are the cells haploid? d. In terms of the chromosomes, how does prophase 1 of meiosis visually differ from prophase of mitosis? e. What occurs during prophase 1? What is a tetrad? What are chiasmata? f. How many chromatids are there during metaphase 1? during metaphase 2? 13. Compare and contrast mitosis with meiosis. Indicate similarities & differences, if any. 14. List and describe the sources of genetic variation generated in sexually reproducing organisms. What is the importance of genetic variation? CH 14: Mendel & The Gene Idea and CH 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 15. Describe Mendel’s model of inheritance. What is Mendel’s Principle of Segregation? How does this relate to meiosis? 16. Briefly define and distinguish between: a. Character and trait b. Genotype and phenotype c. Homozygous and heterozygous d. Dominant and recessive e. Autosomal and sex‐linked traits 17. In examining the inheritance of a single character, how can one determine if a trait is dominant or recessive? 18. What is the difference between an autosomal dominant trait and an autosomal recessive trait? How does the inheritance pattern differ for each? 19. In examining the inheritance of a single character, how can one determine if a trait is exhibiting incomplete dominance? 20. In examining the inheritance of a single character, how can one determine if a trait is exhibiting co‐ dominance? Which blood type demonstrates co‐dominance? 21. What is a test cross? What does this tell you? 22. How are 2 characters inherited? How does Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment apply to this? How does this relate to meiosis? What would be the outcome of this cross: AABb x AaBB? 23. What is epistasis? polygenic inheritance? What is pleiotropy? Briefly describe the influence of the environment on genes. 24. Draw a 2 generation pedigree and shade one or more individuals representing those possessing a specific trait. Determine if the inheritance pattern of the trait is autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or sex‐ linked recessive, or any combination of these. 25. What does it mean to be a dominant or recessive allele? Examine this from the organismal level to the physiological level to the molecular level. 26. What is the chromosomal theory of inheritance? 3 27. How are sex‐linked traits inherited? Describe the different, varying inheritance relationships of sex‐linked traits between: (a) father & mother to son; (b) father & mother to daughter; indicate genotypes & phenotypes here. 28. In examining the inheritance of 2 characters, when does independent assortment not apply? What is the name for such genes inherited in this manner? How are recombinant phenotypes formed? 29. What are chromosomal aneuploidies? How do these occur? CH 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance DNA 30. What is the function of DNA? Why was this function thought to be attributable to proteins, rather than DNA? How did this view change Griffith, Avery, Hershey/Chase experiments. 31. Using the short DNA sequence, 5’‐ACCGT‐3’, draw a simple diagram showing the double‐helical structure of this segment. Indicate the following features and explain: complimentary base pairing, anti‐parallel, 5’‐3’ ends, sugar‐phosphate backbone, nucleotide (what is a nucleotide?). Who originally figured this out? 32. How is information stored in DNA, how is it organized, and what is this information (i.e., how is it used)? 33. What is meant by semi‐conservative replication of DNA? Draw a diagram illustrating this mode of replication. How does this differ from the conservative model of replication? What is the purpose of DNA replication? 34. List the components involved in DNA replication and describe their function. Draw a simple diagram depicting the replication of DNA. Label the replication fork, and correctly label the 5’ & 3’ ends of both parental & daughter DNA. How does chromosome replication differ between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells? a. In what direction is DNA synthesized? Where does synthesis begin? What synthesizes DNA? How are nucleotides linked together? In what direction does DNA synthesis occur? b. Why is an RNA primer sequence required for synthesis of DNA? c. Label the leading and lagging strands on your diagram. How did you distinguish between the two? d. What are Okazaki fragments? Where are these located? e. What is the function of DNA ligase? 35. Draw a replication bubble showing two antiparallel DNA template strands. Draw and label the leading & lagging strands that would be synthesized from these template strands. What is meant by bi‐directional replication? 36. What is a telomerase and what is telomeric DNA? Why is this needed for proper replication of eukaryotic DNA? Where on the chromosome does this occur? Do prokaryotes face the same problem? 37. How is DNA arranged in eukaryotic cells? What is chromatin? What is heterochromatin & euchromatin? How does this differ in prokaryotes? ...
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