1362-SU09-Lecture-2-_39836

1362-SU09-Lecture-2-_39836 - ?Theypossessa ,inherited...

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The Big Picture View of Inheritance • The survival of a species ultimately relies on the survival & reproductive success of its members. • What characterizes such successful individuals? They possess a f bl bi ti f t it i h it d f i ti & favorable combination of traits, inherited from prior generations & molded by nature, that allows them to be well adapted to their environment. They are survivors. Some factors of success… avoid predators Genetic variation in a population is th “f l” f l ti breeding success the “fuel” for evolution. Is the variation here only what you can visibly see?
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A mysterious medical malady seen in 1904 Microscopic observation of blood sample from patient complaining of weakness, dizziness, shortness of breath, & pain: t patient’s red compare to… normal RBC’s patient s red blood cells Patient’s father & 2 sisters died from ailments damaging their lungs, kidneys. Did they have sickle shaped RBC’s? A connection between abnormal cells and the illness? Why are cells sickle shaped? Symptoms characteristic of genetic disorder term sickle cell anemia: occurs when a person receives two copies of a gene that codes for an altered hemoglobin protein subunit altered hemoglobin protein subunit. Hemoglobin: O 2 transporting protein in RBC’s Sickle cells cause multiple complications in affected persons. The connection here: chromosomes Æ DNA Æ gene Æ protein The study of such heritable traits began much earlier…
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Gregor Mendel examined heritable characters of the garden pea such as flower color & seed form. Studied variations among characters called traits – Studied variations among characters, called . – Observed that traits sometimes disappeared from 1 generation to the next, but then reappeared in later generations. Refuted “Blending Theory of Inheritance” – Formulated “Particulate Theory of Inheritance”; traits governed by heritable “particles” or “factors. • Mendel’s Experiment’s: cross pollination of plants possessing character variations; describe & count phenotypes obtained among offspring offspring. stigma extension f l Offspring = seeds anthers of carpel grow & examine contain pollen (male ) carpel contain female gametes (eggs) traits in adult *Self fertilization: fertilize plant with its own pollen Cross = pollen to stigma gametes)
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• Begin by crossing plants known to be P Generation Mendel’s Monohybrid Cross true breeding for both variations of a trait (e.g., purple v. white flowers) Designated parental (P) generation Plants developed from seeds of this cross: F1 generation (F=filial); all purple F1 (F filial); all purple flowered (white trait disappeared?) *No blending of white & purple color all purple flowers self fertilize: (F1 x F1) F2 Self fertilize F1’s; offspring are the F2 generation (white flowers reappear!; 75% purple flowered 25% white Count: 705 224 3:1 (purple : white) 75% purple flowered, 25% white flowered) M d l t d th lt ith i il i l i
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