Assignment 3 - Assignment 3 Questions to consider (from...

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Assignment 3 Questions to consider (from Practicing Biology by Heitz and Giffen, Activities 42 and 43) 1. Explain briefly why we breathe. Or, more specifically, where is what we breathe in used in the body and where is what we breathe out produced in the body? We breathe to oxygenate our blood. We need oxygen in order to carry out metabolic processes and respiration. The air that we breathe in is carried to our lungs through our nostrils, mouth to our alveoli. We need it to carry out respiration. 2. Oxygen is transported in the blood in reversible combination with hemoglobin. a. How does the level of carbon dioxide in the blood contribute to blood pH? (Write the chemical reaction.) The level of carbon dioxide increases, so the pH decreases and the blood becomes more acidic. b. How does the level of CO 2 in the blood affect the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen? That is, how does the concentration of CO 2 in the blood change hemoglobins ability to carry oxygen (the effect of the Bohr shift)? What is the Bohr shift? The increase in carbon dioxide deceases the ph level of the blood. So the lower the ph, the lower affinity for oxygen for hemoglobin. c. Is the Bohr shift more likely to occur after exercise or after hyperventilation (rapid breathing with no exercise involved)? Explain. The Bohr shift is more likely to occur after exercise, because there is more CO2 in the blood, and this causes a drop in pH. This makes the Bohr shift for partial pressure curve for oxygen occur. 3. Compare these oxygen dissociation curves for hemoglobin.
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a. How do the curves differ? They have different amounts of saturation of hemoglobin. i. Normal versus reduced pH? The reduced has a lower affinity for oxygen ii. Fetus versus adult? The fetus has more oxygen affinity than the mother b. What would happen if fetal and adult hemoglobin had the same affinities for oxygen? The fetus needs more oxygen than the mother in order to load it when the mother transfer the oxygen to the fetus, or else that transfer would not occur. 4. If they don’t get what they want, some small children threaten to “hold their breath
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Assignment 3 - Assignment 3 Questions to consider (from...

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