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Psych Study guide - Chapter 11 What is self-esteem self...

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Chapter 11 : What is self-esteem? self esteem is multidimensional. two broad aspects of self esteem= competence and personal and social adequacy. Defined as your overall evaluation of your worth as a person high or low based on the positive and negative self perceptions that make up your self-concept. Self Concept- “what I am” Self Esteem- “how good I am” How does it change over the lifespan? Babies lack self esteem but instead have temperaments. Children are most likely to develop self esteem based on physical characteristics and activities- more likely to have higher self esteem if have warm parents. During adolescence, self concepts become more psychological and integrated and self awareness rises. Only temporary disturbances in self esteem at onset of adolescents and gain self esteem thereafter. Gender differences? Genes vs. environment? Parent’s role? (Read FREUD & ERIKSON’s Theories but do not need to know specifics; read social learning- be able to differentiate different theoretical perspectives) social learning theorists reject the notion of universal stages of personality development and questioned the existence of enduring personality traits across the lifespan;believe in situational influences on behavior Psychoanalytical theorist s= Explore the inner dynamics of personality and propose universal age-related personality changes. Freud believes that the personality emerges in the first five years and remains largely stable thereafter, whereas Erikson saw more discontinuity and believed that stagelike personality changes occur throughout the lifespan. Trait theorists based on factor analyses of responses to personality scales, emphasize the continuity of major dimensions of personality such as the Big Five. Social learning and Contextual theorists question the existence of traits and call attention to the potential for discontinuity in personality across situations and over time. What is trait theory? idea that we have core central personality traits. There can be increase or decrease within a particular trade Know about psychometric approach (mostly pen and paper tests ) , factor analysis , know the ins and outs of Big five factor theory (what’s universal across cultures? 1 openness to experience 2 conscientiousness 3 extroversion 4 agreeableness 5 Neuroticism; all are genetically influenced seem to be universal even though they differ from culture to culture is able Europeans are more extroverted then Asians or Africans What is culturally specific? How do personality traits change over the lifespan? Stable? (know five factors and whether they are stable over time! If they do change- how and when?) What is temperament? a genetically based pattern of tendencies to respond in predictable ways; building blocks of personalities such as activity level sociability and emotionality How is each defined and characterized? easy temperament- infants who are content and happy and adaptable to new experiences regular
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