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Test 3 Mammalian Study Guide

Test 3 Mammalian Study Guide - ”WWWWwEW“WwmmwmwwaE...

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Unformatted text preview: ”WWWWwEW“WwmmwmwwaE w.«WW.ww-w-w--nan-,mwm-m-w-mm»----w-—w~-~w-n-mnmm»-n—«mmwnmw-wvw—Iw—maw-w—mw Equation Sheet far Renal P‘rnblems: mmwflf , . E ,_ . i z ‘ «ME: “urn Renal (2!an Amwnt excreted (mg/mm)! Plasma Conmntmtmn (mgfmhfi whiz “1‘5”“? K, 41‘ amaum excreted is not given, it can be solved by: Urine volume x Urine cone. {3ka Enulin ciem‘arma == Creatinine clearanm= Renal P1331113 Vsimnc x Filtration Fmfianm Tubu'iar Lam}! Plasma. Concentratian =—“ K? 3: Net filtration I’mssure Tubular Load: (WK 2: Piasm Concentration Tmax m Rana} Piasma Threshoid x GFR Tubtdar‘lmafi - Tmax : Amount axcreted a Ritual Bic-0d Vaiume 3 Cardian 011mm? 3: Renal Fraction Renal Plasma Vaimnem PAH clearanee Filtration chtifin = GFRI Renal Plasma Volume: Hamatocdt (HGT) = REV—KIWI REV x 100 (answer in a whole» numbar} $iiflation Pressure = Slumemlar Bland Pressure — Osmotic Préssuz’a - anman’s capsuie 9mm :- Remai Fraction: portion, mi? the 3V :9 kidney; 23w25% of CO I Renal Clearance: Hypethzficai plasma volume examining the want of any substance excretad in the urine per minute Filtratian Fraction; % aftatal renal plasma that caters the BC Hammarit (HOT): % mi“ volume due: to farm. 33211331113 Tubing: Laud: brutal amount of substance that enters iu‘buiar partial; each min ((310me to BC) in Karim Piasma 'i‘hreahgid: piasma concentration of 51.133an that x ”Fmax (if GP‘R == 100 and Tmax = 300 the rem} plasma thrfishold is 3) i E i i i Tums: ‘ Pathniogiexg 1 Test 3 Pathoiogies: . Diabetes Mailitus: 0 some pmplae don’t produce insaiin and athers dnn’t respond m it o insuiiu pmmates the transpcm of gimme into intraaaiiular kidney; themfore, diabetics have lots ofinsuiin in ECF (elevamd glnmse levels); ‘ nothing wrong with ADE levels 0 acmaily ma'bsarb more glucose than nonnai peogle o Tubuiar ioad exceeds the Tm; therefore ,glumse is excretcd in urine ~— giycosuria a Dimis: urine output is 2253 131311 pwple with Diabezes Insipidus . Diabetes Insipidus: 9 Can’t make enough Ami; themfme excrete 101:5 0f urine {021%}; 15-20% mm Wtyfian due: tn ADH) 4:: Treat by giviag ADH o Diuresis: incmased urine vaiums: «v Gout: high ark: acid {minis ~ pracipitams nut in crystallized depagits in hands and feet; treat with micosuric .6 Raspiratory acidasis: 53 Problem: reSpiraimfy system; excessive retmtinn of C02; imnmplbte ventiiation , 0 Causes: lung dime, éaprassion 0f“ winter}? centers in brain, pulmonary fibrosia, nbst‘nmtion (asthma, emphysema? pnemnunia), and impaired ability to rixi (302 a Kidney = solutian (Main. HCQS») a Respiramry alkafosis (ram): 0 P‘mblam: raspiratory system; 1:09 much HCO3-; hwathing me much; comma}: under anxiety 0 Cause-:3: hypewenfilatian, high altitudes, and anxiety 0 Urinates away 3803; can aim breathe into a paper bag 0 Metabolic acidoais: o Pmblem: 10w P1033»; kidneys mciaim W203 and hmgs blow of C02 <1: Causes: lactic acid from strenuous exercifie, diabetes meilitus {metabalizes fat -+ ham acids), ingesticm of aspirin m antiwfitezc, 53va diarrhaa t Metabolic aikalflsis: (uncommon) 0 Causes: hages'tinn of alkalinic (hugs and too many an£i~acidg cxccssivc vomiting :3 gimme: Eggs and'kidneys g3: rifi 0f fiCOS . IRDS {Infant Resmmtnry Histmss Syndramc): surfactant develops at ~34 WEfiks a Premium infants .0: mather with eiiabems mefiitus 0 Insufficient Surfactant 0 Treatment: administer artificia! surfactant - a ARDS (Adult 'Refipim’tnry Dismiss Syndmme): “wet hang” or “Shack hangs” Q 30% die with medical Heamnem; unkmwn mum {most likeiy dismbanced’damage in pulmonaxy capiilaxics) ‘ Paflmlogies 2 0 91111210an capiilariea became panneabk to fluiii and {ask pmtcins into the interstitial} space» 33:11me edema (inhibits surfactant productian) Q flamess: near dmwnings, reactions to kaxins, aim/Iain surgerics (heart bypass), Darwin drugsg and infectiona {hm pmummia 0: TB - Anemia: mo few RBCS o Nmritionai; dict dsficiency (usuafly iron} 0 i’emicieus: can’t absorb Vii 3 1‘2 (mammary to make mama 01? R383) fine to absence 9f intrinsic: fiactor; burly makes masmcytes instead (contain too much HE) w easy to fi‘actme); inject Vii; 812 (multivitamin won": work) 0 Azalasfic: barge mamaw can’t make REES due :0 taxing (heme, mdiazion, 61¢) or mxknuwn masons) o Banal: kidney dy’sfimcfion; lack of cmhmpuietin — ofifin xii/kidney failnm; give Ewgen a Hemorrhagic: fmm hmonhage dug to trauma or menstrual flow 0 Hemoiytic; over destrucztim 0f RBCs (too fragile; deskoyeci too much); from malaria (mpmfing 9f M}; people with sickle cell :- Puiycythcmia: too many RBCS 0 Primary (palycythemja vera): {mm tumor in bone marmw that stimulates REC productim; HGT: 70-80; thick flared (increases work load of heart) 0 Smndary {physiologically 130$}? makes mart: REES became law 02 (high altitudes); kidneys are chmicafiy hypoxic - Jaundice: diseased liver (not marking righz m“ bile (inn: is blackedj—a bilirubin bum up (gives yeliowish apgearame £0 builtmp ESP) 0 UWBilimbin fights used » bmks down bilimhin and makes it mere soluble :- Cirrhosis: hapatocytes are dammed anti scar tissue (CT) repiaces - 1“ resistaaoc and T yum-mi P of‘hepatic puma} vein; P backs up to fem: a veracie (aim: in veins and wnulw of emphages); afien causes edema in Ever (swoilen abdomen) 0 Veracie: bulging ofthe veins; can rupture w serious ca Esapélageal veins: fmm increased penal resistanae; i? buiid$ up and backs into hepatic penal win into Esophageafi wins; varicose wins a Kapaamyies make bile «a» biie canalicmliw cystic duct-4 gall bladder (stared wii) 0 fiO$1000mL hiie secreted per day {gall bladder can’t hoid this much) ~ gali bladder reabsorbs water and mncsnuates bile into bile salts 0 GB conmts ~— forces bi}: into cystic duct that combines wlhepatic duct into common bike duct ~> dugdmum (via sphincter ofoddi) o Bil: secretion is at intervals {only when food is in SI); regulated by hormmws: i Choiecysmkinin: intestinal mucosa! cefls produce in response to mods (€Sp fats}; 1131er into circ gystem than GB (GB contracts, 3phincter ofaddi relaxes); Bile is released into 31 - Hemophilia: hereditary C} 1303’”: have 1+ of clotting facmrs; several types; 3%% iauk Factor VIII . ”fhmmbus; intravasmiar bleed clot usuaiiy in deep wins (part legs ~ passibiy from inflammatim); treatment: 0201 buster, angioplasty ‘ 9aflmlngies 3 {imbalm 340mg 01' all of thrombus breaks away and cimuEates in blond; often gets stuck in pulmonary capillaries; treannant: elm bumcr, angiaplasty Bisminmcd Intmvascular (liming (DRE): clutting/coagulaiian nvarsfimulated by acute traumalifimsg (after; Semis aback); lets of 01913 form anti are deposited in capillary circulation; piamfin tries to braak down and patient bleeds to death a Run out of clotting {mints w bleed to £3th mambowtopenia 911mm: m0 flaw plateiets - no plataiet flagging Q Have purple blotch/es (bnfisas) bio capiliaries bleeé (Wt: mifimgmncmms in cm: system) ami bleed gms cm: into interstimm (initiates extrinsic mmham‘sm) Dwarfism: Q Pituitary Dwarfism: most Gammon; $11011 stature; low leveis of HGH or GHRH 0 Lawn Dwfi: mum} tn high 1:37:15 sf HGH but 19w lava-ls of IE}? I and mufiawd gmwflz humane mpmrs; can”: synthesize ZGF I o Pygmies: Law 168 ievels, but growth homnne receptors and IGF {I receptars are normal; deficieacy in the number of‘HGH receptors 0 Pmfics: standaxd, miniature, my: similar GH, ievels; decreasing [OF I imls (standardfi toy) Giantism: o Pituitary giamism: tun much (”Si-i b/c pituitary tumm; become very fail; often have éiabetes We it is an effect if growth homone Ammegaly: tux} much (3H after puberty {the fusion of epiphyseal plates): big brown, chin, hands, am! feet; aan’t get tallar — just afiects smfller, fiat bangs and ali bane diameter; increases aize in game organs V g 8 ”mafia: H mm?“ mam $904 mo, $83“ 83:83 mamafifiamfi wammmvfium finahsumaow H .muuflnt mg ”$32 mggg «fl 3 magma mmngfifiéx $3M onmgcm H . Emm 3 Egg“ 8“. mmkmc ammo“? $3383 3 mmmmwwm EEMBE Swat?“ mummmomwm anno‘smfi V .. .. a 33. 23 ”$22 . , . S 3ng Eva ma Egdmnmm mam mwufiwmou r mm. Em ow. 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