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study guide - Communication a process in which individuals...

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Communication : a process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment. Linear Model : Sender → Message → Receiver Transactional Model : interdependency between components. One message builds on previous message. We simultaneously send and receive messages Sources of Noise: Semantic : linguistic influences on reception of a message i.e., slang, jargon [medical terms] Physical : bodily influences on reception of message Psychological : cognitive influences on reception of a message Physiological : biological influences → speaker is ill, fatigued, or hungry Contexts that affect communication: Cultural context : what is the cultural climate in which communication is taking place? Personal context : how do you personally communicate? Relational context : what is our relationship with the person we are communicating with? Physical context : what is the physical environment in which communication is taking place? Symbols are: ABSTRACT, ARBITRARY, and AMBIGUOUS Characteristics that affect communication: -Susceptible to misunderstanding -Irreversible -Functional -Learned Components of a Theory Concepts: words or terms that label the most important elements in a theory Nominal concepts: unobservable (love) Real concepts: observable (height) Relationships: specifications for the ways in which the concepts in the theory are combined. Goals of a Theory: Explanation Understanding Prediction Social Change Paradigm: intellectual traditions that are shared by a community of scholars. Ontology: assumptions about the nature of human existence Epistemology: assumptions about the nature, methods, and limitations of human knowledge Axiology: assumptions about the role of values in scholarship
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Humanistic Scientific Ontology: Yes. Free Will No. Epistemology: No. Knowledge & Reality Yes. Axiology: Yes. Values, Researcher’s Role No. Criteria for evaluating a theory: Scope & boundaries → covers enough with restrictions Logistical consistency → makes sense, not contradictory Parsimony → simplistic while explanatory Utility → useful, practical Testability → can test/ measure accuracy Heuristic → generates insight and new research Test of time → is durable over time Analogic Codes: symbols that bear a physical resemblance to the things that they represent Digital Codes: symbols that are arbitrary and do not resemble the object they represent Language is a Digital Code Language relies on a common ground of shared meaning. Language is a relatively precise symbol system Language allows expression of abstract ideas. Language is self-reflexive. Characteristics and Consequences of Language: Language is abstract. Language is arbitrary. Language is related to culture. [English language is male dominated/oriented.] Language is consequential.
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