Final%20Exam%20Study%20Guide

Final%20Exam%20Study%20Guide - Final Exam Study Guide1

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Unformatted text preview: Final Exam Study Guide1 Name:_____________________________________ Final Exam Study Guide Your final exam will be:_________________________________________ For the final exam you will need a scantron form 884E, there will be approximately 150 questions on the final Exam. Remember as you answer the questions, concepts may cross chapters. For example we talked about aerobic respiration in Chapter 3 and Chapter 7. Happy studying and Good Luck on your Final!!!! Chapter 1-Intro 1.For each organ system, list the organs and function of that system. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Define Homeostasis and give examples of process that are controlled by homeostatic regulations: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. List the components of a feedback system. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Define positive feedback and give an example: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Define negative feedback and give an example: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6.What is a serous membranes and where you can find them? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 7. List and define the characteristics of life. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 3-Cells 8. Define hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic and describe what would happen to a cell placed in each of the solutions. Final Exam Study Guide2 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 9. List the passive processes for moving material across the cell membrane. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 10. List the active processes for moving material across the cell membrane. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Define Diffusion and give an example. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Define osmosis and give an example. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Explain how lipid soluble molecules, small water-soluble molecules, large water-soluble molecules, and glucose pass through the cell membrane. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 14. Define Filtration. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 15. Define the term organelles. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 16. List the function of Cilia. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 17. Define Translation and list the location where it occurs. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 18. Define Transcription and list the location where it occurs. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 19. List the function of mitochondria and tell what types of cell you would find mitochondria. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 20. Define aerobic respiration and list where it occurs. Final Exam Study Guide3 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 21. Define anaerobic respiration and list where is occurs. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 22. Define the Fluid Mosaic Model. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 23. List the characteristics of a "typical" cell. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 24. List the stages of mitosis and a description of what happens at each stage. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 4-Tissues 25. List the four type of tissue. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 26. List the three types of muscle tissue and the characteristics for each. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 27. Compare endocrine glands to exocrine glands. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 28. List the specialized cells that can be found in connective tissue and the function for each. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 29. List the connective tissues and distinguishing characteristics for each. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 30. List the components of the matrix of connective tissue. Final Exam Study Guide4 _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 31. Explain how epithelial tissue is classified. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 32. List the different types of epithelium and the function for each type. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 33. List the characteristics of epithelial tissue. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 34. List the type of epithelium you would find in the kidney tubules. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 35. List the type of epithelium you would find in the blood vessels. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 36. List the type of epithelium you would find in the urinary bladder. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 37. List the different types of cartilage and describe the matrix of each one. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 5-Integument 38. Describe a third degree burn. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 39. List the characteristics of the dermis. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 40. List the characteristics of the hypodermis. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 41.Explain the processes involved in temperature regulation of the Integumentary system. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 42.Describe what occurs during the inflammatory response. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 43. List the functions of the Integumentary system and give an example of each. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 6-Skeletal Final Exam Study Guide5 44. Growth in length of long bones occurs where? _____________________________________________________________________________________ 45. Explain how a bone grows. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 46. Define an Osteon or Haversion System. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 47. Compare and contrast compact bone with cancellous bone. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 48. Define intramembranous ossification. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 49. List the specialized cells found in the bony matrix and a function for each. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 7-Muscle 50. List the characteristics of acetylcholine. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 51. List the characteristics of a sarcomere. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 52. Describe an actin myofilament. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 53. Describe a myosin myofilament. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 54. Define the term motor unit and list the differences in motor units for gross motor movement and fine motor movements. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 55. List the steps of muscle contraction. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Final Exam Study Guide6 56. What are the energy requirements for muscle contraction? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 57. What role does ATP play in muscle contraction? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 8-Nervous 58. List the meniges in order from superficial to deep. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 59. List the components of a reflex arc. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 60. List an effect that sympathetic stimulation would have on the heart. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 61. List the neuroglial cells and give a function for each. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 62. Define resting membrane potential. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 63. Explain how an action potential moves along a myelinated axon and an unmyelinated axon. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 64. Define the all or none principal. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 65.Explain the phrase sub threshold stimulation as it would relate to an action potential. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 66. List the characteristics or the chemical substances released from the presynaptic terminal. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Final Exam Study Guide7 67. List some events that could cause an action potential to be generated. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 68. List the major regions of the brain. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 69. List the parts of the brainstem and the functions for each part. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 70.Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine system. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 10-Endocrine 75. Define the term target cell. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 76. List the function and target tissue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 77. List the gland that secretes Antidiuretic hormone and the functions of ADH: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 78. List the gland that secretes calcitonin and the functions of calcitonin: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 79. List the functions of the endocrine system: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 80. List the factors that cause aldostorone to be released and the function of aldosterone. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 81. List the gland that secretes epinephrine._________________________________________________ 82. List the gland that secretes growth hormone.______________________________________________ List the gland that secretes parathyroid hormone and the functions of parathyroid hormone (PTH). _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 83. List the gland that secretes the hormone insulin and the function of insulin. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 84. List some of the reasons that we must maintain blood glucose levels. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Final Exam Study Guide8 85. List the ways in which hormone secretion is regulated. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 11-Blood 86. List the functions of blood. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 87. Compare erythrocytes to leukocytes. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 88. Describe the characteristics of platelets. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 89. List the stages of hemostasis and what occurs at each stage. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 90. For each blood type list the antigen present on the cell and the circulating antibodies. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 91. List the gland that secretes erythropoietin and its function. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 92. Describe an erythrocyte. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 93. List each of the leukocytes and its function. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 94. What is the most common leukocyte? _____________________________________________________________________________________ 95. Define Hematocrit. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 12-Heart 96. List the location of the heart:___________________________________________________________ Final Exam Study Guide9 97. List the layers of the heart and what each layer is composed of: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 98. List the parts of the conducting system of the heart and arrange them in the order. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 99. Define cardiac output. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 100. List some factors that can cause a decrease in cardiac output. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 101. List some factors that can cause an increase in cardiac output. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 102. List the location of the cardioregulatory center in the brain:_________________________________ 103. Compare and contrast action potentials in skeletal muscle vs. cardiac muscle: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 104. List the characteristics of cardiac muscle: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 105. Define Tachycardia. ____________________________________________________________________ 106. Explain what is happening in all of the chambers and with the valves of the heart during ventricular systole and ventricular diastole. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 107. List the direction of blood flow through the heart. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 108. List the risk factors for cardiovascular disease: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Final Exam Study Guide10 Chapter 13-Blood vessels 109. List the characteristics and functions of capillaries. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 110. Define pulse pressure and provide an example of how to solve for it. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 111. Define atherosclerosis. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 112. List the different type of arteries and give one distinguishing characteristic for each: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 113. List the function of precapillary sphincters: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 114. Give the values for normal blood pressure and high blood pressure: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 115. State the function of the carotid bodies. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 116. State the function of the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 117. List some of the mechanism that you would expect to be activated where there is a sudden increase in blood pressure. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 118. List some of the mechanism that you would expect to be activated where there is a sudden decrease in blood pressure. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 119. Explain what the chemoreceptor reflex is and list conditions that would stimulate this reflex. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 14-Lymphatic 120. Chapter 15-Respiratory 120. List the divisions of the pharynx and arrange from superior to inferior Final Exam Study Guide11 _______________________,_____________________________, ______________________ 121. List the location of the respiratory center in the brain and describe its function. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 122. Define respiration. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 123. List the factors the influence gas exchange across the respiratory membranes. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 124. Describe the structures that air passes through after it has been inspired. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 125.List the site where gas exchange occurs between inspired air and blood occurs. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 126. Compare the differences in alveolar pressure and atmospheric pressure during inspiration and expiration. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ 127. Compare the difference in thoracic cavity volumes during inspiration and expiration. State what muscles if any are involved in the changing of the volumes. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ...
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