America%20Sticky%20Power - U.S. military force and cultural...

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Walter Russell Mead is the Henry A. Kissinger senior fellow in U.S. foreign policy at the Council on Foreign Relations. This essay is adapted from his forthcoming book, Power, Terror, Peace, and War: America’s Grand Strategy in a World at Risk (New York: Knopf, 2004). U.S. military force and cultural appeal have kept the United States at the top of the global order. But the hegemon cannot live on guns and Hollywood alone. U.S. economic policies and institutions act as “sticky power,” attract- ing other countries to the U.S. system and then trapping them in it. Sticky power can help stabilize Iraq, bring rule of law to Russia, and prevent armed conflict between the United States and China. | By Walter Russell Mead S ince its earliest years, the United States has behaved as a global power. Not always capable of dispatching great fleets and mighty armies to every corner of the plan- et, the United States has nonetheless invariably kept one eye on the evolution of the global system, and the U.S. military has long served internationally. The United States has not always boasted the world’s largest or most influential economy, but the country has always regarded trade in global terms, generally nudging the world toward economic integration. U.S. ideological impulses have also been global. The poet Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote of the first shot fired in the American Revolution as “the shot heard ‘round the world,” and Americans have always thought that their religious and political values should prevail around the globe. Historically, security threats and trade interests compelled Americans to think globally. The British sailed across the Atlantic to burn Washington, D.C.; the Japanese flew from carriers in the Pacific to bomb Pearl Harbor. Trade with Asia and Europe, as well as within the Western Hemisphere, has always been vital to U.S. prosperity. U.S. President Thomas Jefferson sent the Navy to the Mediterranean to fight against the Barbary pirates to safeguard U.S. trade in 1801. Commodore Matthew Perry opened up Japan in the 1850s partly to assure decent treat- ment for survivors of sunken U.S. whaling ships that washed up on Japanese shores. And the last shots in the U.S. Civil War were fired from a Confeder- ate commerce raider attacking Union shipping in the remote waters of the Arctic Ocean. The rise of the United States to superpower sta- tus followed from this global outlook. In the 20th cen- ILLUSTRATIONS BY LESLIE LAMMLE FOR FP 46 Foreign Policy
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48 Foreign Policy [ America’s Sticky Power ] tury, as the British system of empire and commerce weakened and fell, U.S. foreign-policymakers faced three possible choices: prop up the British Empire, ignore the problem and let the rest of the world go about its business, or replace Britain and take on the dirty job of enforcing a world order. Between the onset of World War I and the beginning of the Cold War, the United States tried all three, ultimately tak- ing Britain’s place as the gyroscope of world order. However, the Americans were replacing the British
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2010 for the course MARK 3336 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '10 term at University of Houston - Downtown.

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America%20Sticky%20Power - U.S. military force and cultural...

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