120.TopicOutline.13 - CSULB Instructor George M Scott...

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CSULB Instructor: George M. Scott ANTHROPOLOGY 120 INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY OUTLINE—TOPIC 13 RACE AND ETHNICITY I. INTRODUCTION— There is a seemingly permanent gap between the public and the academic communities regarding the concept of race. Academics distinguish between biological race and cultural race. The public conflates (wrongly) the two types. Meanwhile, the concept of ethnicity, which is much more useful than race, is used mostly in academic circles. II. RACE A. Biological—The Genetic Characteristics Accounting for Immutable Differences in Human Populations, Resulting in the “Races” of Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloid, and Australoid. 1. Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism 2. Anthropometrics 3. To more enlightened scholars, these ideas became known as “scientific racism.” B. Cultural—The Learned and Shared Belief that There are Distinct Races of People Based on Biological Differences, i.e., a Cultural Construct. 1. Scientifically, race is no longer accepted as a valid concept. 2. 99 % of the human genome is identical between all individuals; what is left accounts for such minor differences as skin color, hair texture, and facial features. The latter are now considered
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“clines,” or the continuous variation in physical attributes, most of which result from differences in environment. 3. In 1998, the Executive Board of the American Anthropological Association issued a statement on race, stating it evolved as a worldview, a body of prejudgments that distorts our ideas about human differences and group behavior. Racial beliefs constitute myths about the diversity in the
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120.TopicOutline.13 - CSULB Instructor George M Scott...

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