L11_grammar-09-student - Hל· X‹–· Ê „ À w with...

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Unformatted text preview: Hל· X‹–· Ê „ À w with a lot of difficulty , finally..... Be sure not to confuse this special pattern, used for completed actions with the ordinary usage of w as in ‹= – X· ª "It is not easy to learn Chinese". X K + VP ↓ indicates the successful completion of an action after a lot of difficulty ˜•–· : 1 ˜•–·ª * w . w .w@ å W ↓ ˜· •ª – . w ↓ ˜· •ª – . w w (2 Û x‡–· ☆ x‡–·ª w w ( w “x‡ ª · – …” ) w 1ˆ â Ú w _____________ w I finally drove home w ª · – 2x ‡ ________________ (I finally finished reading it) 3w â ß° =· – ,‡ x ª w ________(He finally bought it). ¨•–· ☆ ¨•–·ª (¨ “– * ª · w …” ) Š X–·ª 1. w A ˜s ¡ •† ¼ V C * ª · – • + B X–·ª Š* ____________________________ 2. xA• s † ª · –B X Š w ______________________________ w =" · 3.• x † s ˜ ª– A •¡ Bw w __________________________________ w H‚–· w · – ‚ H =s † • "over and over again" H ‚ ↓ + VP often conveys exasperation and tiresomeness ¨Œ–· w P + † "over and over again" •+ † 'to explain' ¨Œ =ª · – 'to warn' w w 'to emphasize' w ( w ) 'to advice' w 'to correct, revise' etc. È‹–· 1Ð € ç à w . w‹ Ȫ ·– . ↓ Ð € . …–· b ☆ (…–·ª * “☆ w ”… * ª · – 1 ˜¡s * ª · – „ + •† Aw 2xs ˜„–·ª= †w " •¡ Aw 3•† x Aw 4w • wx† s • Aw È_Z¼ (w )w w (w ) 1. Durations of time : (w )È from three years ago up to the present ÈZ ª _¼ from three months ago to the present €–· o (w )w w (w ) 2. w time point (from a certain point in time up to now) 1.( w )1999 w ........ ....,since 1999........ =· .– o 2€ ª ...........,ever since I became acquainted with her............. ˜_Z¼ ☆È ñ w (˜ “Z ¼ È ”) 1. ___________________, (w ) 2.____________________, (w ) 3.____________________, w ª ¼ . Z (^ è ) ñÈ È ¨· hu /w w (w ) S + VP →suggest an action occurred later or more slowly than expected + VP →suggest an action occurred sooner or more quickly than expected TW h TW(time when) h S ¸Ž–· ☆☆ /w w : _________ w 2. w ) _______ ) (1. w A1. ` º w (1. w A2. må¼ x w ª (· 1.Ž ¸ – A3.Ž ¸ ª·– w 2. w ) 2. w _______ w ^Z¼ o B1. •† s+ ª ¼ Z ^o =ª ¼ Z ^ o B2. B3.Z ^ o =ª ¼ ª¼Zo ^ B4. €Óä¼ w w ______ _______ w , w ______ o ª¼Z^ _______ h€–· w . w to urge, to rush (someone) w : 1. ·–€ h 2. ·–€ h ¼u °ä ww ¼ â»È w w ø[Z¼ ☆ ø[Z¼ª * 1 ˜¡s C * ª ¼ Z ^ à + •† * ø[Z¼ª w ^ xà † • s2 ˜ ¡ ¨ w “☆ ”[ * ª ¼ Z ___________________ _______________ w ø‚–· w ª · – ‚ ø can not help but; unable to bear; can not control oneself but…. w =· 1‚ . ø ª– w 2. • s x † ª· –‚ ø w w w w [Z¼ b ☆ ([Z¼ª * “☆ w ”[ * ª ¼ Z 1. s + •† w ____________________________ w x† •s 2. __________________________ w \Z¼ " ¼ Z \ w finally... w = 1. \ " ª¼Z ª ¼ Z \" 2. w w Ü• w w [Z¼ j ☆ 8[Z¼ª * w “☆ ”[ * ª ¼ Z 1. 8 Ç ___________ w 2. I" ____________ w Óœ· b · œ Ó ( w 1. â¼ =ª · œ Ób 2.† s x• wâ w be sure ( w ) " W w w w " W ¨[Z¼ ☆ ¨[Z¼ª * w “☆ ”[ * ª ¼ Z 1 ¨[Z¼ª * w 2 w _____________ w ° ___________ w ˜_Z¼ w Adj. / Verb t … /w Adj. / Verb to certain degree/ extent €–· j 1x ¼ ç Q w 2° ½ Ê 7 * ª €–·j w * €–·ª j w w w w \Z¼ " ☆ \Z¼ª * w “ adj./verb t … ” 1x • . C† " \Z¼ª= s ˜¡ w _________________ w ª · – 2è Œ (GongLi)Œ è =ª · – __________________________ w ˆÑª· w ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2010 for the course CHEM 1A taught by Professor Nitsche during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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