L11S10_PeriodicTrends+02-12-10

L11S10_PeriodicTrends+02-12-10 - CHEM 1A L11:...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEM 1A L11: "Periodic Trends" © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-1 Summary Ionization Energy (kJ) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1s2 2p6 2p 2p4 2p5 2p2 2p3 2p1 1s 2s 2s2 3s C N O F Ne Na L12-8 H He Li Be B © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB Electronegativity Zeff n - Δ > 2.0 Ionic Na+Cl- - Electronegativity Partly Ionic Δ ~ 0.4-2.0 H+Cl0.4Covalent Cl - Cl Δ < 0.4 + © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB Na ~0.9 H ~ 2.2 Cl ~ 3.2 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB L12-10 L11-2 Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev Professor of Chemistry St. Petersburg University Founder of the Modern Periodic Table (1869) © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-3 © 2006 Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB 1 CHEM 1A L11: "Periodic Trends" © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-4 Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity X X + eM IE (kJ EA (kJ mol-1) mol-1) X+ + e- IE X- EA Na 496 -53 e- K 419 -48 Rb 403 -47 X IE (kJ EA (kJ mol-1) mol-1) Cl 1251 -349 Br 1140 -325 I 1008 -295 © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-5 Alkali Metals in Water 2 M(s) + 2 H2O Redox Reaction 2M 2M +2e + - H2 + 2 MOH 2 H20 + 2 e- H2 + 2 O H - © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-6 © 2006 Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB 2 CHEM 1A L11: "Periodic Trends" Successive ionization Al (g) Al+ (g) Al2+ (g) Al3+ (g) Al+ (g) + e(g) Al2+ (g) + eeAl3+ (g) + eeeAl4+ (g) + eI1 = 580 kJ/mol 580 I2 = 1815 kJ/mol I3 = 2740 kJ/mol I4 = 11,600 kJ/mol © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-7 Trend in Ionization Energy 2500 Ionization Energy (kJ) 1s2 2p 2p6 2p4 2p5 2p3 2000 1500 1000 500 0 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na L11-8 1s1 2s1 2s2 2p2 2p 1 3s1 © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB First Ionization Energy for the Elements in the First Five Periods © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-9 © 2006 Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB 3 CHEM 1A L11: "Periodic Trends" ChemQuiz© 11.1 What is the ionization energy of Cl- (kJ/mol) ? + eCl - Cl C) 349 349 L11-10 A) 1251 1251 © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB B) -349 ChemQuiz© 11.2 Which of the following has the smallest IE smallest IE? e- A) ClCl © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB B) Ar Ar C) K+ L11-12 Atom Config Atomic Properties IE 1312 EA -73 Atom Config IE EA (kJ mol-1) 1086 -122 H He Li Be B 1s1 1s2 C N O F Ne Na 1s22s22p2 2372 >0 1s22s22p3 1402 ~0 1s22s1 520 -60 1s22s22p4 1314 -141 1s22s2 899 >0 1s22s22p5 1681 -328 1s22s22p1 801 -27 1s22s22p6 2081 ~0 © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB [Ne]3s1 496 -53 L11-14 © 2006 Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB 4 CHEM 1A L11: "Periodic Trends" The Radius of an Atom (r) half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-15 Atomic Radii (picometers, pm) for Selected Atoms © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-16 ChemQuiz ChemQuiz 11.3 Which of the following has the Smallest Smallest radius? A) Cl A) Cl © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB B) Ar Ar C) K L11-17 © 2006 Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB 5 CHEM 1A L11: "Periodic Trends" Electronegativity Zeff n - Δ > 2.0 Ionic Na+Cl- Electronegativity Partly Ionic Δ ~ 0.4-2.0 H+Cl0.4Covalent Cl - Cl Δ < 0.4 + Na ~0.9 H ~ 2.2 Cl ~ 3.2 © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-19 ChemQuiz© 11.4 For which X does H2 + X2 2HX H X X H H X X H release the most energy? A) Cl Cl © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB B) Br Br C) I L11-20 Lecture Complete © 2006Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB L11-22 © 2006 Kubinec, Pines, Nitsche, UCB 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2010 for the course CHEM 1A taught by Professor Nitsche during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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