L33S09_Acid-Base-Strong,+pH+04-15-09

L33S09_Acid-Base-Strong,+pH+04-15-09 - Chem 1A, L...

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Unformatted text preview: Chem 1A, L 33:"Strong Acids and Bases, pH" Heterogeneous Equilibrium, Gases, Liquids, Solids Solubility of gases in water CO2 (g) Q= CO2 (aq) aq) Henry’s Law, Solubility [x] = K Px Gas He K L26-4 Previously CO2 CO2(aq) aq) K: mM X(aq) per atm X X(aq) Xe 4.4 N2 0.7 O2 1.3 CO2 NH3 30 > 104 Ar 1.5 [CO2 (aq)] aq)] PCO2 = K (T) Equ. Equ. 0.4 Carbonated drinks, “Bends” during diving ©A.Pines,M.Kubinec, UCB Like dissolves Like, Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic. L26-5 ©A.Pines,M.Kubinec, UCB Solubility of Ionic Solids BaSO4 (s) BaSO Ba2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) aq) aq) Conductometric Titration Ba(OH)2 (aq) = Ba2+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) Ba( aq) aq) aq) H2SO4 (aq) = 2 H+ (aq) + SO4-2 (aq) aq) aq) aq) Ba2+ (aq) + SO4-2 (aq) = BaSO4 (s) aq) aq) BaSO (s) 2 H+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) = 2H2O aq) aq) Ba2+ OH- H2SO4 Q= [Ba2+] [SO42-] = K sp(T) Equ [Ba [SO Ksp = 1.1 x 10-10 x = [Ba2+] = [SO42-] [Ba [SO x2 = 1.1 x 10-10, x ~ 10-5 M ©A.Pines,M.Kubinec, UCB SO42Ba2+ BaSO4 L34-10 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB ©A.Pines,M.Kubinec, UCB L33-1 L34-14 Conductometric Titration Ba(OH)2 (aq) = Ba2+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) Ba( aq) aq) aq) H2SO4 (aq) = 2 H+ (aq) + SO42 (aq) aq) aq) aq) -2 H2SO4 Ba2+ (aq) + SO-2 (aq) = BaSO4 (s) aq) BaSO (s) 4 aq) 2 H+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) = 2H2O aq) aq) Ba2+ OHL33-2 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB ChemQuiz© 32.4 For the titration of Ba(OH)2 Ba( solution with H2SO4, which is the correct plot of conductance vs. added H2SO4? A) B) H2SO4 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB C) H2SO4 H2SO4 L33-3 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB 1 Chem 1A, L 33:"Strong Acids and Bases, pH" ChemQuiz© 32.4 Solution After BaSO4 is produced, BaSO excess H2SO4 conducts. H2SO4 A) 2 2 H+ + SO-4 B) H2SO4 H2SO4 C) H2SO4 L33-4 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB Acid-Base Equilibrium, AcidConjugate A/B Ionization, Dissociation acid base acid Summary A HA + B BH + BH acid base acid + base - HA + H2O H3O+ + A- base Ka = [H30+][A-] [HA] + - HA : H3O+ HAc H2O A : H2O © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB B : OHBH : H2O + NH3 H2O NH4+ H3O + acid - Ac OH - - H2 O + B base acid + BH + OH Kb= base [BH+][OH-] [B] L27-5 + - L27-4 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB Autoionization, Autoionization, Autodissociation of H2O acid Strong Acid-Base Titration Acid13.0 0.1 M HCl 1 Liter 13.0 7.0 1.0 0.1 M NaOH 1 Liter H2O+H20 -14 base H3O +OH acid base + Kw=1.0x10-14 at 25º C [H30 ]=[OH ]=1.0x10 M ]=[OH pX = -log[X] log[X © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB Kw=[H30 +][OH-] =[H ][OH + - 7.0 1.0 E.P. E.P. + - -7 Pure H2O : pH = pOH = 7.0 L27-6 0.1 mol H3O+ © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB OHOH- - 0.1 mol H3 O + L27-9 + Acid-Base Equilibrium, Conjugate A/B HA + B acid base acid BH + ABH + base - HA : H3O+ HAc H2O A- : H2O © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB B : OHBH+ : H2O + NH3 H2O NH4+ H3O+ L33-6 - Ac- OH- + © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB 2 Chem 1A, L 33:"Strong Acids and Bases, pH" Ionization, Dissociation acid base acid + HA + H2O H3O + A- base - Ka= [H30+][A-] [HA] acid H2O + B base acid BH + OH Kb= + base [BH+][OH-] [B] L33-7 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB Autoionization, Autodissociation of H2O H2O+H20 + acid base H3O +OH - acid + base - Kw=[H30+][OH-] =[H ][OH Kw=1.0x10-14 at 25º C 25º [H30+]=[OH-]=1.0x10-7M ]=[OH © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB pH = pOH = 7.0 L33-8 The pH Scale The pX Scale [H30+]=1.0x10-14M ]=1.0x10 [OH-]= 1.0x10-0M log[H3 H pH = -log[X] O+] X log[X -log 14 [H30+] [H30+]=[OH-]=1.0x10-7M ]=[OH ]=1.0x10 -log 7 [H30+]=1.0x10-0M ]=1.0x10 [OH-]= 1.0x10-14M © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB -log 0 L33-9 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB 3 Chem 1A, L 33:"Strong Acids and Bases, pH" ChemQuiz© 33.1 Which of the following solutions has the highest pH? pH? A) 10-3M NaOH B) 10-6 M HCl C) 10-12 M HCl © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB L33-10 ChemQuiz© 33.2 x 10-14 Shown is Kw for H2O versus temperature. What is the pH of hot water? water? 10.0 1.0 25ºC 25º 60ºC 60º A) = 7.0 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB B) < 7.0 C) > 7.0 L33-12 Strong Acid Base Titration 13.0 7.0 1.0 0.1 M HCl 1 Liter 13.0 7.0 1.0 0.1 M NaOH 1 Liter E.P. E.P. 0.1 mol H3O + OHOH- 0.1 mol H3O+ L33-14 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB 4 Chem 1A, L 33:"Strong Acids and Bases, pH" ChemQuiz© 33.3 Shown are the titration curves for 0.1 M NaX NaX with 0.1 M AgNO3. Which is least soluble in H2O? IBrCl- added Ag+ A) AgCl AgCl © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB B) AgBr AgBr C) AgI AgI L33-15 ChemQuiz 33.4 Shown is the titration curve for HCl with 0.1 M NaOH. Which corresponds NaOH. to the titration of HCl with 0.2 M NaOH? NaOH? mL A) © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB B) C) L33-17 Lecture Complete © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB L33-19 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2010 for the course CHEM 1A taught by Professor Nitsche during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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