05-Lect-Reaction Order and Rate Laws0

05-Lect-Reaction Order and Rate Laws0 - Outline: 1. Rate...

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1 Chemical Reaction Engineering - Musgrave Reaction Order and Rate Laws Lecture 5 - Page 1 Outline: 1. Rate Law Definitions (Fogler 3.1) 2. Reaction Order and the Rate Law (Fogler 3.2) Next Time: (Fogler 3.3-3.4) 1. The Reaction Rate Constant (Fogler 3.3) 2. Updates to Our Approach to Reactor Sizing (Fogler 3.4) Chemical Reaction Engineering - Musgrave Reaction Order and Rate Laws Lecture 5 - Page 2 Chemical reactions transform species from one type (identity) into another. Heterogeneous Reactions occur at the interface between phases - a gas-liquid, a gas-solid, or a liquid-liquid interface. Homogeneous Reactions occur in a single phase - a gas, a liquid, a solid, or a plasma. Molecularity of a reaction: the number of molecules involved in a reaction step: C C CH 3 CH 3 C C CH 3 CH 3 OH + O C C CH 3 CH 3 H Br + C C CH 3 CH 3 Br Unimolecular Bimolecular Alcohol dehydration Alkene bromination
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2 Chemical Reaction Engineering - Musgrave Reaction Order and Rate Laws Lecture 5 - Page 3 Reactions can be complex (involving many steps) or elementary (single step). Complex reactions are composed of elementary reactions. cat2 cat1 C E cat3 G H cat2r J D 7 NHC-H 2 6 NHC NHC-AB H 2 H 2 H 2 NH 3 BH 3 NH 2 BH 2 2 5 3 NH 2 BH 2 4 1 NH 3 BH 3 NH 2 BH 2 + H 2 NH 3 BH 3 !' Energy Chemical Reaction Engineering - Musgrave Reaction Order and Rate Laws Lecture 5 - Page 4 Overall reaction : net transformation (excludes intermediates and transition states). cat2 cat1 C E cat3 G H cat2r J D 7 NHC-H 2 6 NHC NHC-AB H 2 H 2 H 2 NH 3 BH 3 NH 2 BH 2 2 5 3 NH 2 BH 2 4 1 NH 3 BH 3 NH 2 BH 2 + H 2 NH 3 BH 3 !' Species in: 3NH 3 BH 3 Species out: 3NH 2 BH 2 3H 2 3NH 3 BH 3 3NH 2 BH 2 + 3H 2 NH 3 BH 3 NH 2 BH 2 + H 2 But I count 4H 2 ’s produced!
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3 Chemical Reaction Engineering - Musgrave Reaction Order and Rate Laws Lecture 5 - Page 5 H H H H H H + H H H + Consider the reaction H 2 +H: This reaction is: • Thermal neutral (not exothermic or endothermic) • Symmetric (R AB and R BC are related by symmetry) • Linear H H H R AB R BC Energy An energy scan over R AB and R BC generates the potential energy surface (PES): Define the reaction coordinate as R BC -R AB : for the reactants • - for the products Note that the definition of the
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05-Lect-Reaction Order and Rate Laws0 - Outline: 1. Rate...

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