MidtermIIQsKEY - Animal Development Cell signaling...

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1. Which of the following does not occur during cleavage in frogs? a. A high rate of mitosis b. Reduction in the size of cells c. Expression of genes critical for blastula formation d. Orientation of cleavage planes at right angles e. Unequal division of cytoplasmic determinants 2. Which of the following statements about frog egg fertilization is (are) TRUE? a. Sperm enters egg in the animal hemisphere b. Gray crescent forms where sperm entry occurs c. Yolk is located in the vegetal hemisphere d. Both a and c are correct e. All of the above are correct 3. How does cleavage in mammals differ from cleavage in frogs? a. Slower rate of cell division b. Formation of tight junctions c. Expression of the embryo’s genome d. Early separation of cells that will no contribute to the embryo e. All of the above 4. Which statement about gastrulation is true? a. In frogs, gastrulation begins in the vegetal hemisphere b. In sea urchins, gastrulation produces the notochord. c. In birds, cells from the surface of the blastodisc move down through the primitive groove to form the hypoblast d. In mammals, gastrulation occurs in the hypoblast e. In sea urchins, gastrulation produces only two germ layers. 5. All of the following are derived from mesoderm EXCEPT: a. Skeleton b. Heart c. Lungs d. Gonads e. Muscles 6. The developmental stage which immediately follows fertilization is a. Gastrulation b. Cleavage c. Neurulation d. Growth e. Organogenesis 7. Which of the following germ layers is incorrectly matched with its adult structure? a. Endoderm- esophagus, lungs b. Mesoderm-bone, stomach, heart c. Ectoderm-epidermis, central nervous system d. A and C e. All of the above are correct 8. Which of the following characterizes neurulation?
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a. The notochord forms a neural tube b. The neural tube is formed from ectoderm c. A neural tube forms around the notochord d. The neural tube forms somites e. In birds, the neural tube forms from the primitive groove. 9. Which statement about trophoblast cells is true? a. They are capable of producing monozygotic twins b. They are derived from the hypoblast of the blastocyst c. They are endodermal cells d. They secrete proteolytic enzymes e. They prevent the zona pellucida from attaching to the oviduct 10. Which membrane is part of the embryonic contribution to placenta formation? a. Amnion b. Chorion c. Epiblast d. Allantois e. Zona pellucida 11. A blastula is a. A hollow cavity b. A hollow sphere of cells surrounding a central cavity c. A disc of cells formed on the surface of a large yolk mass d. A cell produced by the division of a fertilized egg e. An opening created by invagination of the vegetal pole 12. A major factor in the determination and differentiation of tissues along the anterior-posterior axis of the mouse is the a. Differential expression of hox genes b. Concentration gradient of β-catenin c. Differential expression of the sonic hedgehog gene d.
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MidtermIIQsKEY - Animal Development Cell signaling...

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