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BIO 3 Phylogenetic Analysis - related – have common...

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Phylogenetic  Analysis 1.  Phylogenetic analysis solely based on characters: Plesiomorphy (derived from ancestor) Apomorphy (similarities of characters due to adaptation- derived) 2. analysis: wings of birds, moth, bat, pterosaur ( shared character)  Acquired to convergent evolution (subject to natural selection) – acquired  independently? Yes, so wings are analogous in this example. Are the wings from a common ancestors? Yes, in the case of birds, bat, pterosaur (so  these three organisms have a common ancestor). No, in the case of moth because moth  doesn’t use its forelimb to fly unlike the three other organisms. Ancestral homologies or derived homologies? Cladistic taxonomy   based on derived traits (synapomorphy) 3. phenetic taxonomy: based on total similarities e.g. starfish and jellyfish (so they are closely 
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Unformatted text preview: related – have common ancestor than that of human being) 4. cladistic taxonomy: based on synapomorphies (chars from derived chars) e.g. starfish and human are closely related than that of jellyfish because particular mechanism is similar. (starfish and human have common ancestor) 5. refers to slides ( only monophyletic group is allowed in cladistic taxonomy) 6. cladistic taxonomy has more complex hierarchal (many-many monophyletic group) Cladistic analysis: 1. ancestral or derived characters? • What it’s used to look compared to what it looks now! (fossil records) 2. How the tetherapods (four-legged organisms) classified using cladistic analysis? • Select outgroup ( bony fish) • Select traits and determine polarity • Put on a taxon matrix (suggest derived taxonomy)...
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