BIO 6 2 Kingdoms to 3 Domains

BIO 6 2 Kingdoms to 3 Domains - 2009 BIO153: Lecture 6 From...

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1 2009 BIO153: Lecture 6 From 2 Kingdoms to 3 Domains January 26, 2009 Insights into life’s diversity: From Aristotle until recently, everything was either a plant or an animal (Note that even in modern biology departments, mycologists (people who study fungi) were often grouped in with the botanists!) Microscopy brought new insight (the ability to see unicellular organisms): van Leeuwenhoek (1632 – 1723): observed rainwater, his own stools (!) and saw “little animalicules” (protists); however, these were still classified with plants or animals (depending on “plantlike” or “animal-like” traits) Cell theory: arrived at independently by Schleiden (1804 – 1881) studying plants, and Schwann (1810 – 1882) studying animals: the observation that living things were constructed of cells The importance of cell structure to taxonomy was not immediately appreciated. Haeckel (1866): proposed a new kingdom: Protista: single-celled organisms Problem with “Protista”: “protista” included both nucleated & non-nucleated cells E.g. cyanobacteria (prokaryote) and green algae (eukaryote) were grouped together Next step: a distinction was made between nucleated and non-nucleated cells: Chatton: French marine biologist (1937): “procaryotique” = cells without a nucleus “eucaryotique” = cells with a nucleus karyon = kernel pro = before eu = true or good
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2 Next step: Whittaker’s 5 kingdom system (1969): groups were defined on the basis of whether they had nucleated or non- nucleated cells; multicellular organisms with nuclei were grouped on the basis of
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BIO 6 2 Kingdoms to 3 Domains - 2009 BIO153: Lecture 6 From...

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