To Garrison Frazier, freedom was having their own land where they could reap the fruit of their own labor
and take care of themselves. To accomplish this they needed land, in which they would work for themselves,
produce crops, keep what they needed and sell the rest. After this meeting, Sherman responded with Special Field
Order 15, setting aside a large area of South Carolina and Georgia Coasts for African-American families to settle 40
acre pots. With conflict on the rise alongside the reconstruction, new labor systems emerged. The task system and
sharecropping become common, and the former slaves preferred it to gang laboring. There were more blacks than
white sharecroppers, but more of the blacks were renting their land. Robert B. Elliott became part of the House of
Representatives, where he fought for the civil rights act of 1875. This act guaranteed that everyone, regardless of
race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in public accommodations. By
1890, and as reconstruction ended, it would be another century until equal rights for slaves was seen again.
Chief Joseph felt he was not free because he was chased across sates and forced to move to Oklahoma. He
gave a speech condemning policy of confining them and adopted the language of freedom and equal rights so
powerfully. The government eventually transported surviving Indians to a reservation in Washington. He continued
to petition for freedom of his people until his death. The Indian victory took place in 1876, when several tribes
defended land across the black hills that was reserved for them in an 1868 treaty. They didn’t surrender until 1880s.
Between the civil war and 1890 8 additional states entered the union. The dawes act of 1887 was supposed to break
up all the land into small parcels for Indian families, while the rest would be auctioned off to whites. However
instead they lost a lot of land and Indian culture. After the passing of the Act, they had lost 86 million acres. By
1924 they had all become American citizens.
The frontier was announced closed. This meant that . Fredrick Jackson Turner gave a celebrated lecture on
the importance of the frontier. He had one of the most influential interepetions of the west.
Sumner was a social Darwinist and a professor at Yale. He gathered his ideas on private property and
capitalism throughout his years studying. His ideas influenced the industrial policy by offering more labor to the less
privileged like he talked about. Herbert Hoover responded to the Great Depression as most thought in an uncaring
and inadequate way. He made steps to maintain investment and employment, and encouraged businesses to keep
prices and wages the same. Roosevelt regarded the New Deal as an alternative to Socialism, Nazism, and
unregulated capitalism in hopes to resolve democracy, liberty, and economic planning. He did what he could to