Lehman_lectures5 - Lecture 5 Hominins Human Variation and...

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Lecture 5 Hominins, Human Variation, and Forensic Anthropology - Genetic patterns of morphology for some key fossil hominins - Main hypotheses on human origins - How evolutionary anthropologists refute human race concepts - What forensic anthropology is and how it relates to applied anthro. Some Key Australopithecines : The first “real” hominins - Autralopithecus (southern ape man) anamensis/ afarensis/ africanus/ aethiopicus/ boisei/ robustus Australopithecus anamensis - Kanapoi, Kenya - 4.2-3.9 MYA - Tooth row is parallel ( ape-like), ‘U’ H ‘V’ - Partial tibia ( ) provides strong evidence for bipedality - Primitive (ape-like) cranial morphology and a derived (human-like) postcranial morphology Austra- afarensis - Ethiopia and Tanzania ( N.E. Africa ) - 4.2-3.0MYA -> very successful species - Many specimens - Complex morphology exhibiting some ape-like traits (e.g. sagittal crests –H ª ..) and hominin-like traits ( e.g. valgus knee ) - Size -> Single, sexually dimorphic species or two species? ** Laetoli Footprints - 3.6MYA in Laetoli, Tanzania - Demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal - Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees -> bipedalism - Gait was “heel-strike’ followed by……………………… Austra __ africanus - Various sites in S. Africa - 3.0`2.3 MYA - Average brain size in 458cc. ( not very big- chimpanzee ) - Dental features differ from those in A. afarensis. – little more hominin like - Postcranial features similar to those in A. afarensis. – indicative of bipedalism Astr_ aethiopicus - West Turkana, Kenya - 2.7-2.3 MYA - Large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crest ( chewing muscle ), and enormous teeth. - Remarkably primitive hominin at such a late date ( more ape-like ) - Why we know evolution is not linear.
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Austra_ boisei - Olduvai, Tanzania - 2.2-1.2 MYA ( million of years!!!) - “hyper-robust’ hominin - Morphology broadly similar to that seen in A. aethiopicus. ( massive skulls, giant teeth) - Contemporaneous with members of the genus Homo. -
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Lehman_lectures5 - Lecture 5 Hominins Human Variation and...

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