Watts_lecture3 - A NT100 09.10.01 Lecutre3 Becoming Human...

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ANT100 09.10.01 Lecutre3. Becoming Human - Focus on the last 2 mya in pre-history - Technological & social development - Homo habilis homo erectus Neanderthals homo sapiens sapiens 1) Cultural Chronology (1) Lower Paleolithic – 2.5 mya~ 3.0 kya i) H. habilis ( Oldowan) ii) H. erectus (Acheulian) (2) Middle Paleolithic – 3000kya – 40,000 ya i) Neanderthals ( Mousterian) (3) Upper Paleolithic – 40,000ya – 14.000 ya i) Modern humans ( Aurignacian ) 2) Homo Habilis - ‘handy person’ : assumed tool-making abilities. Ex) pebble choppers - Decrease in prognathism (protruded lower jaw) ; higher, rounder cranium - Increase in cranial capacity ( thought to correlate with capacity to make stone tools, better exploit landscape ) - Tool use : percussion flaking Oldowan pebble chopper - * Olduvai gorge 3) Homo erectus - Transition to more advanced hominin forms . ca 1.9mya - First to use fire ( can be found in Swartkrans ) ca 1.5mya - First to leave Africa – adapted to a number of diff. environments - E.g. Europe, SE Asia by 1.8 mya!
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